1) Political globalization Task 1 p.55-56


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  • 世貿第六次部長級會議 世貿下的香港 [videorecording] http://lib-nt2.hkbu.edu.hk/hkbutube/vod.asp?bibno=b1949541 農民自殺為世貿大會蒙陰影 http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_3090000/newsid_3099600/3099674.stm
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations
  • 世界糧食計劃署
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNESCO
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Health_Organization
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Trade_Organization
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Monetary_Fund
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Bank
  • 1) Political globalization Task 1 p.55-56

    1. 1. Unit 6 – Political Globalization Lesson 16, 17
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Apart from having enhanced economic development and cultural exchange, globalization has also increased the political influence of different countries around the world. </li></ul>
    3. 3. International intergovernmental organisations ( 國際政府組織 ) <ul><li>They refers to organisations formed by governments of different countries. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Task 1 – Understand international intergovernmental organisations <ul><li>United Nation, UN ( 聯合國 ) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations, UNESCO ( 聯合國教育、科學及文化組織 ) </li></ul><ul><li>World Trade Organization, WTO ( 世界貿易組織 ) </li></ul><ul><li>International Monetary Fund, IMF ( 國際貨幣基金組織 ) </li></ul><ul><li>World Health Organization, WHO ( 世界衛生組織 ) </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank ( 世界銀行 ) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Task 1 <ul><li>Matching </li></ul>
    6. 7. United Nations, UN ( 聯合國 ) <ul><li>Founded in 1945, this organisation currently has 192 member states ( 成員國 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Its aims are to maintain international peace and security, promote international collaboration ( 協作 ) in solving international economic, social and cultural problems, promote respect for human rights and freedom, and enhance ( 提升 ) international relationship. </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>The UN was founded after World War II ( 第二次世界大戰 ) to replace ( 取代 ) the League of Nations ( 國際聯盟 ), to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple ( 多重的 ) subsidiary organizations ( 輔助機關 ) to carry out its missions. </li></ul><ul><li>There are currently 192 member states, including every internationally recognised sovereign state ( 主權國 ) in the world but the Vatican City ( 梵蒂岡 ). </li></ul><ul><li>From its offices around the world, the UN decide on issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. </li></ul>
    8. 9. The organization has six principal organs: <ul><li>1) the General Assembly 聯合國大會 </li></ul><ul><li>2) the Security Council 聯合國安全理事會 </li></ul><ul><li>3) the Economic and Social Council 聯合國經濟及社會理事會 </li></ul><ul><li>4) the Secretariat 聯合國秘書處 </li></ul><ul><li>5) the International Court of Justice 國際法院 </li></ul><ul><li>6) the United Nations Trusteeship Council 聯合國託管理事會 (inactive) </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Other prominent UN System agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). </li></ul><ul><li>The UN's most famous public figure is the Secretary-General ( 秘書長 ), currently Ban Ki-moon ( 潘基文 ) of South Korea, who attained the post in 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>The organization is financed from voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. </li></ul>
    10. 11. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO ( 聯合國教育、科學及文化組織 ) <ul><li>Founded in 1945, this organisation currently has 193 member states. </li></ul><ul><li>Its purpose is to attain world peace by promoting international collaboration ( 協作 ) through education, science and culture. </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>This is a specialized agency ( 專責機關 ) of the United Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information. </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Projects sponsored by UNESCO include: </li></ul><ul><li>teacher-training programmes; </li></ul><ul><li>international science programmes; </li></ul><ul><li>the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; </li></ul><ul><li>regional and cultural history projects; </li></ul><ul><li>international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites 世界遺產 ). </li></ul>
    13. 14. World Health Organization, WHO ( 世界衛生組織 ) <ul><li>Established in 1948, this organisation currently has 193 member states. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN) whose main responsibility is to coordinate ( 協調 ) global health issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Its objective is promote international public health. </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>With headquarters ( 總部 ) in Geneva ( 日內瓦 ), Switzerland ( 瑞士 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from coordinating international efforts to control outbreaks ( 爆發 ) of infectious disease ( 傳染性疾病 ), such as SARS ( 非典型肺炎 ), malaria ( 瘧疾 ), tuberculosis ( 肺結核 ), influenza ( 流感 ), and HIV/AIDS ( 愛滋病 ), the WHO also sponsors ( 贊助 ) programmes to prevent and treat such diseases. </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>The WHO supports the development and distribution of safe and effective vaccines ( 疫苗 ) and drugs ( 藥物 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>After over two decades of fighting smallpox ( 天花 ), the WHO declared in 1980, that the disease had been eradicated ( 根絕 ) – the first disease in history to be eliminated ( 消滅 ) by human effort. </li></ul>
    16. 17. World Trade Organization, WTO ( 世界貿易組織 ) <ul><li>Founded in 1995, this organisation currently has 153 member states. </li></ul><ul><li>Its function is to ensure that all trade between nations is done fairly, freely and predictably ( 可預計的 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Member countries must follow all the WTO trade agreements ( 貿易協議 ). </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>The WTO has 153 members, representing more than 97% of total world trade and 30 observers, most seeking membership. </li></ul><ul><li>The WTO's headquarters is in Geneva, Switzerland </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise ( 監督 ) and liberalize ( 自由化 ) international trade. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides a framework for negotiating ( 談判 ) and formalizing ( 形成 ) trade agreements. </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>The organization is currently persisting ( 持續 ) with a trade negotiation called the Doha Development Agenda ( 多哈發展議程 )/ Doha Round, which was launched in 2001 to enhance equitable ( 公平的 ) participation of poorer countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers in poor countries v.s. Farmers with subsidies from rich countries </li></ul><ul><li>The future of the Doha Round is uncertain. </li></ul>
    20. 21. International Monetary Fund, IMF ( 國際貨幣基金組織 ) <ul><li>Established in 1945, this organisation currently has 186 member states. </li></ul><ul><li>It aims at promoting international monetary ( 貨幣 ) cooperation, stabilising ( 穩定 ) international exchange rates ( 匯率 ), facilitating economic development and employment, and providing financial assistance ( 經濟援助 ) to countries to help ease ( 減輕 ) economic and financial crises ( 危機 ). </li></ul>
    21. 22. <ul><li>It also offers loans with varying levels of conditionality ( 有條件的 ), mainly to poorer countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Its headquarters are in Washington, D.C., United States. </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>Countries contributed to a pool ( 共用資金 ) which could be borrowed from, on a temporary basis, by countries with payment imbalances ( 不平衡 ). </li></ul><ul><li>The IMF works to improve the economies of its member countries. </li></ul>
    23. 24. World Bank ( 世界銀行 ) <ul><li>Established in 1944, this organisation currently has 186 member states. </li></ul><ul><li>Its mission is to reduce poverty by helping poor nations develop, for example, by building schools and hospitals, preventing diseases and protecting the environment. </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>The World Bank proclaims ( 聲明 ) a goal of reducing poverty. </li></ul>
    25. 26. 2. Since the 20th century, the number of international intergovernmental organisations has increased from 30 to 300. Briefly explain the reasons for the change. <ul><li>This is because relationships among countries are closer than before. </li></ul><ul><li>With more frequent exchanges, things that happens in one country (e.g. financial crisis, natural disasters, wars and disputes, etc.) can easily affect other countries or regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, it is necessary to establish more international intergovernmental organisations to resolve ( 解決 ) these problems. </li></ul>