The political dimensions of globalization


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The political dimensions of globalization

  1. 1. 1 The Political Dimensions of Teaching Module for the TCC Globalization Seminar April 2009 Presented by Daniel A. Strasser Adjunct Instructor of Political Science Tidewater Community College, Virginia Portsmouth Campus
  2. 2. 2 How to Use this Slide Show • The following PowerPoint presentation on Globalization’s political dimensions may be put online for individual student study. • It may also be used by an instructor to give a series of lectures covering all of the material for delivery orally and for discussion. In that case, the instructor may wish to reduce the amount of information on each slide and transfer it to the notes section of the slides.
  3. 3. 3 Defining Globalization • A good definition I have found (Levin Institute, SUNY): • “Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world.” ( • No universal definition of globalization. • Economic definition: trade, finance and communications • Broader definition: Tom Friedman – an International System that replaced the Cold War
  4. 4. 4 Why Globalization? • Globalization – A “smaller world” • People are closer together • A world closer in time and space • A world without borders • Goods, services and ideas move faster or instantly. • Driven by technology – Transportation – Shipping, Containerization Air travel – Communication – Television, the Internet
  5. 5. 5 Globalizations I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII • I Early Man: Globalization is inherent in the human condition; man originated in Ethiopia 200,000 + years ago and occupied the entire world 20,000 years ago. • II Ancient Empires: China, Rome, Italian explorers, Arab traders • III Colonial empires of Spain, Portugal, England, France, Holland – Mercantilism • IV British Empire - Naval Supremacy 18th /mid-19th Century to WWI • V Cold War – Post WWII - US vs. USSR, the UN, Decolonization, Independence movements, accelerated technological development, space exploration, micro processing, the internet • VI American Hegemony – Post Cold War, Rise of Islamic Radicalism, Transnationalism, NGOs, Uni-polarity • VII Post-Modern: 9/11, 2008/9 Recession, Multi-polarity •Often speak of Globalization I (Pre-WWI) and II (Post Cold War), with a hiatus in the middle, but one can identify 7 phases of Globalization:
  6. 6. 6 Types of Globalization • Technological: IT, Biomedical, Green, Robotics • Population: Growth, Aging, Youth Bulge, Women, Labor, Nigration • Economic: Commercial, Industrial, Communications, Services • Financial: Investments, Banking, Exchange Rates, Black Markets, Money Laundering • Cultural: Ideational, Ideological, Educational, Civilization, Pop Culture • Political, Democratic, Multinational Organizations, International Law and Regimes, Rule of Law, Civil Society • Military/Security: Nuclear Proliferation, Alliances, Rising Powers • Environmental: Global Warming, Bio-Diversity, Deforestation • Health: Pandemics, Potable Water, AIDS/HIV, Malaria • Resources: Water, Food and Agriculture, Energy and Fuels, Minerals • Terrorism: Islamist-Extremist, other Religious, Ethnic, National, • Crime: Organized Crime, Drug Trafficking, Piracy, Trafficking in Persons, Conflict Diamonds
  7. 7. 7 The Political Dimension • The Threats: – Sub-national Conflicts and Failed States – Radical Islamic Terrorism – “Clash of Civilizations” – Authoritarianism – From Zimbabwe to China – International Organized Crime – Drug Trafficking – Widespread Corruption – Global Economic/Social Inequality – Population Pressures – Ecological Threats – Rising sea levels, Hurricanes – Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) – Resource Wars – Fuel, Water, Food, Raw Materials – Human Rights Violations, War Crimes and Genocides
  8. 8. 8 The Political Dimension • The Benefits – David Ricardo and comparative advantage – Expansion of trade, industrialization, finance and GDP – Expansion of Diplomacy and “Soft Power” as the core of state power – Expansion of International Law and Organizations – Expansion of Freedom, Democracy, Civil Society – Expansion of Development and Foreign Assistance – Expansion of Western Culture and Values – US a principal beneficiary of Globalization – Empowerment of individuals, women, groups, minorities
  9. 9. 9 Global Threats • Fragile, Failing, Failed States and Ungoverned Territories – Weak state is either a result of or allows for internal ethnic or religious conflicts – Anarchy results in human suffering, violence, criminal activities and trafficking – Lack of governance results in non-existent or poor public services, corruption – Allow safehavens for terrorist, extremist and criminal organizations – Globalization makes negative impact on th Rest of the World (ROW), e.g. terrorism and piracy
  10. 10. 10 Global Terrorism •Harvard Political Scientist Samuel Huntington predicted a “Clash of Civilizations” between the West and the East •Main threat is from Radical Islamist Extremism, e.g. Al Qaida and Associated Movements. •Driven by a jihadist (religious war) ideology to create a modern Caliphate under sharia (Koranic) law. •Al Qaida is “blowback” from war by US-backed Mujahaddin against Soviet aggression in Afghanistan in 1979. •Resentment from “Arab Afghans” against resistance by own governments (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, etc.) to give them a political/security role; resentment against US dominance of Middle East; presence of US troops on Holy ground and control of Middle East petroleum and support for Israel. •Promoted series of bombings—First World Trade Center bombing, USS Cole, US Embassies in Nairobi and ….and finally 9/11/2001 attack on the World Trade Center. •US invasion of Afghanistan – Al Qaida leadership flee to Pakistan tribal areas •Joined resistance to US invasion/occupation of Iraq. •Continue to support Afghan Taliban and fight in Afghanistan •Continue to plan and plot further terrorist attacks against Western targets •Problem of terrorist presence on the WWW and of “home grown” terrorists in Europe and the US. •First major national security reorganization in US forming the Department of Homeland Security. •Other terrorist groups, Hizbollah in Lebanon and Hamas in Palestine Gaza Strip, represent state- sponsored groups supported by Iran and Syria, against Israeli and Jewish targets only.
  11. 11. 11 Global Authoritarianism • Such states are the greatest threat that there will be future inter-state warfare. • Authoritarian states are subject over time to changing international norms and values, but may resist them for a long period of time. • Democracy has eroded the number of authoritarian regimes a range of states from one-man/one-party corrupt (Zimbabwe) or military-run (Myanmar) state, to a one-party, bureaucratic authoritarian state such as China (China’s attachment to Communist ideology is questionable). • “Rogue States,” such as North Korea, Iran, Cuba (and to some extent Syria) present particular destabilizing elements with potential for use of WMD. • Unlike Totalitarianism of former Nazi Germany or USSR, current Islamist Extremism or Anti-Communism (as in Pinochet’s Chile), authoritarianism today is non-ideological • Pragmatic desire to hold power for political and economic benefit of an elite • Historically, the most widespread, diverse and persistent type of political system.
  12. 12. 12 International Organized Crime • Takes advantage of borderless world, fast air, sea and land transportation, use of public transportation and “mules” • Takes advantage of poverty and inequality • Takes advantage of drug tolerance in all societies • Takes advantage of legal prohibitions in demand countries. • Still weak international institutions to coordinate counter-narcotics activities on a global scale to match those of the traffickers • Human Trafficking takes advantage of poor people seeking improved lives to subvert immigration and promote sweat shops and prostitution. • Piracy is an ancient but growing problem that severely affects global shipping, trade and energy supply and is usually associated with failed states and ungoverned territories. •Biggest crime threat is from organized drug cartels, Colombia, Mexico, Russian Mafia, Italian Mafia and Camorra •Drugs create public health and safety issues in source, transit and importing countries. •Drug trafficking weakens state institutions through corruption, fear and violence. •Takes advantages of weak, corrupt governmental and law enforcement institutions. Stratfor Map
  13. 13. 13 Corruption • Corruption is a global problem that undermines states and good governance and threatens the rule of law • Corruption undermines free markets causing economic impacts and impact on social and public services • Corruption undermines democratic governance substituting money and influence for the free will of the people • It undermines public confidence in the government and bureaucracy which is supposed to operate for the public good not the private good of politicians and public servants. • Corruption undermines the benefits of international economic development assistance which siphons off funds from otherwise good projects. • Corruption undermines trust between governments • Corruption creates inequalities between corrupt and non-corrupt states that lead to spillover effects in neighboring countries. • Corruption leads to moral and ethical breakdown in societies as it breaks the social contract between a government and its citizens. • The opposite of corruption is transparency which can be promoted by government policies and efforts by civil society and the international community
  14. 14. 14 Socio-Economic Inequality • Inequality is based on geographic, historical, social and cultural grounds. • There is inequality within and between states and world regions. • Globalization increases wealth overall, but tends to create winners and losers, thus expanding socio-economic equality. • Unequal economic development between the North and the South created the North-South divide. • Histories of conquest and colonization resulted in a difference between exploiters and exploited. • Within countries, class differences emerged in both the agricultural (masters, slaves and serfs) and industrial (capitalists and workers) ages. Differences in the relative value of industrial and agricultural goods determined the wealth of nations. • Marxists believe that the difference between the wealth of nations is part of the system of “capitalist exploitation” and “imperialism.” • Socio-economic inequality leads to resentments and other phenomena from crime to “social exclusion” (a term used in Europe) social revolt and rioting, racial, religious and regional tensions and even internal and cross border wars. • Such conflicts often get related to global tensions between states, with some states supporting allies within a local conflict while their enemies supporting the other side. Such alliances can result in regional or even world wars if not controlled by international norms and mediation. • Efforts to reduce inequality through economic assistance have proven to be inadequate. Economic development through reform has been more successful.
  15. 15. 15 Population • Migration is a constant factor for change in populations, shifting labor and social tensions caused by economic and cultural competition. • Migration is caused by wars, economic distress, droughts, racial tensions, ethnic cleansing and by a desire for economic improvement or political or religious freedom. • Some populations are aging while others have created a “youth bulge.” The former means a burden will be placed on younger generations to support a greater proportion of retirees. In the latter, too many youth mean not enough meaningful employment and resulting social and political unrest. • Efforts by some countries to reduce population growth (China) have increased population aging and reduced prospects for future growth. •Over 1 billion people out of 6.2 billion live in abject poverty. Projections for 2050 is 9 billion. •Children are the first to suffer from poverty and lack of health care, clean water, adequate food and education •Population growth puts increasing pressure on natural resources, including water, food, fuel, raw materials and on the earth’s atmosphere. •Population growth has been accelerating, creating additional burdens upon the Earth’s capacity to provide a decent living for all. •Population growth means that there is constant pressure on per capita GDP growth
  16. 16. 16 Environmental Threats • Global warming is one of the largest threats to human welfare today, promising melting ice caps and glaciers, rising sea levels, changes in – weather patterns and loss of certain species due to habitat loss. • Negative impact of climate change on biology, health, food and water resources. • Deforestation means reduced oxygen and more CO2 resulting in more greenhouse gases that bring climate change. • Excessive use of carbon-based fuels creates CO2 emissions that threaten global warming. Growth from globalization, itself worsens climate change. • Growing population with middle class aspirations, especially cars, lead to greater emission of CO2 • Destruction of rain forests also threatens bio-diversity, with its potential to find new cures for human illnesses. • Pollution of the atmosphere and water supply directly effect human health and safety. • The environment is a global issue that needs global solutions or results in “beggar thy neighbor” behavior and potential social and political tensions. • Countries arriving late to industrialization and economic development resent that more developed countries now want them to share sacrifice to reverse global problems caused by the latter. • The United States failed to provide leadership in the environment over the past decade. Without it, progress on global environment is unlikely.
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Weapons of Mass Destruction • Since WWII, WMD have presented a global existential threat to the survival of life on the planet or at a minimum massive loss of life in one or more cities. • The Cold War limited the growth of nuclear powers (US, USSR, UK, China, and France, the victorious powers of WWII and the permanent members of the UN Security Council) and limited the threat of nuclear war through Mutual Assured Destruction of the US and USSR. • Regional conflicts and insecurity caused a rush to acquire nuclear weapons on the part of some countries (India, Pakistan, China, Israel, North Korea) and efforts by others (Iran and others in the past). • Even middle powers developed cheap chemical, biological weapons • Break-up of the Soviet Union led to fears that not all nuclear weapons were secure. • Fear is that terrorist groups could produce or acquire one or more nuclear devices to destroy major population/governmental/military centers to weaken the US and Western powers or threaten them into concessions. • Fear that local tensions (Israel/Iran or India/Pakistan) could trigger wider wars.
  19. 19. 19 Resource Wars • A new “Malthusianism” has emerged from growth of population and environmental impact. • Concern that the world will run out of basic resources: clean air and water, food, fuel, minerals, wood, other agricultural/animal products • Availability of resources depend on imperfect markets as well as production • Global climate change could reduce the amounts of water, food, wood and other agricultural products. • Countries in need of irrigation for agriculture to support growing populations might engage in conflict over water, e.g. the Nile River • Some countries, e.g. China in Africa, appear to be seeking to “lock up” resources for future consumption. • Competition for resources could cause a rise in naval competition to control “choke points” of commerce (Sea Lines of Communication- SLOCs). • Countries could react to perceived threats to their sovereignty over resources (e.g. Brazil concerned about the international community’s eye on the Amazon). • Could bring a return to “geopolitical thinking” in foreign affairs.
  20. 20. 20 Human Rights • Many countries and groups continue to violate human rights despite international standards and mechanisms. • Basic liberties are lacking in authoritarian states, where repression limits political expression, competition and the right of self-determination of peoples. • Ethnic and Religious intolerance and tensions provoke ethnic cleansing, intra- state conflict and wars. • Genocide remains a threat over large populations in Africa, the Middle East and even Europe. • Violations against women (rape, trafficking), children (child soldiers, abductions) and minorities some used as forms of warfare. • Weak international institutions to bring war criminals to justice. • Women not considered equal in parts of the Middle East, Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America, deprived of suffrage, basic political freedoms, education, access to health, freedom of the person and subjected to sex slavery, arranged marriages, honor killings, veiling and female genital mutilation. • Children not given basic human needs for their early survival and success.
  21. 21. 21 Global Benefits Economic Rewards • Economic benefits have political consequences • David Ricardo, 18th Century economist, discovered • law of comparative advantage. That each nation should produced those things it produced best, cheapest, and all would benefit from lower prices. Philosophy of free trade. • Globalization, promoted by free trade, has meant greater wealth creation on global scale and emerging economies in the South • Containerization revolutionized, reduced cost of global trading. • Industrialization of the South and movement of industrial jobs to Asia, Mexico. • US has become center of global financial and other high tech services. Globalization of finance (Now under question.) • Global GDP growth.
  22. 22. 22 • The failure of the weak League of Nations to prevent WWII, led the victors of WWII, FDR, Churchill and Stalin, to form the United Nations. • First purpose of UN is the Maintenance of International Peace and Security • Another important purpose is the promotion of universal human rights • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) is now the global standard of human rights performance and the together with the Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic and Social Rights make up the “International Bill of Rights.” • UN, began with 51 states, promoted the process of self-determination, decolonization, so that today there are 192 member states. • The growth of treaty law has created international regimes for many global issues, from the Law of the Sea to Human Rights and World Trade. • UN System includes not only universal representation of states (General Assembly), but also a capacity through the Security Council to act to preserve peace and security. Other organs consider Economic and Social issues, a Secretariat provides leadership and administrative support and the World Court and International Criminal Court promote international rule of law. • World Conferences on issues like the Environment, Women’s Rights and the Millennium Development goals have promoted major global issues. • The UN is only as strong as its nation-state members allow it to be. • UN reform is fundamental to its future utility in providing a core function of global governance. International Law and Organization and Human Rights
  23. 23. 23 Democratization under the Carter Administration, moderation in the Cold War, exhaustion of various authoritarian models and of their economic policies following the debt crisis of the late 70s and changing international norms. • It was consolidated by the decline and fall of the Soviet Union in the late 80s as former Soviet dominated states became independent and move to democracy. • Today, democracy has been consolidated in Europe, in parts of Asia and almost all of Latin America (with some questions remaining about the degree of consolidation). Democracy has made least progress in the Middle East and Africa, with only a handful of democratic states. • Such big states as Russia and China are not democratic while, the US, The European Union, Japan, India, Brazil, South Africa and Indonesia represent populous democracies. • Democracy is now accepted as the form of government most favored by the United Nations and other regional organizations such as NATO and the Organization of American States . •Democracy was a minority form of government globally until the mid-1970s when a “Third Wave” of democracy began, described in a book written in 1991 by Samuel P. Huntington. •More than 60 countries transitioned towards democracy beginning with the 1974 “Revolution of the Carnations” in Portugal. (The other "waves" occurred from 1828- 1926 and 1943-1962, each followed by reversals.) •Third Wave due to US withdrawal from Vietnam, a a shift towards human rights
  24. 24. 24 Global Civil Society •Idea of civil society, “We the people,” dates back to Preamble of the Constitution, US First Amendment’s freedom of association and findings of Alexis de Toqueville in “Democracy in America.” •Civil society can be a bowling league, a PTA a Rotary or Optimists Club or it can be as large as the Red Cross, with international and national components. •Civil society is often described as the “Third” or “Independent Sector” after the Government and the Market Economy. •Civil society organizations (CSOs) are usually associated with nonprofit (with a capacity to receive non-taxable donations) or Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs, usually operating internationally). •Global Civil Society operates independently of both government and inter- governmental organizations, but is closely involved with both of them. •CSOs are often identified as “interest groups” or even “pressure groups” for the role they play in lobbying governments and IGOs on issues of concern. •NGOs played a key role in the promotion of the human rights mission of the UN. •In recent times, they have played a very important role in promoting governmental and IGO focus on issues of the environment, women, children and other human rights and humanitarian issues. •They also partners with official organizations to promote the policies they support and implementation of those policies. •CSOs often receive not only private donations, but also government and IGO funding and resources to carry out functions like humanitarian assistance, health, development and democracy promotion activities. In this role, they are often referred to as Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs)
  25. 25. 25 Globalization of Foreign Assistance • Foreign Assistance is traced back to the Marshall Plan for • post-war Europe • Foreign Aid has long served both humanitarian and strategic • purposes • As former colonies became independent, from the late 1950s to the mid-1990s, their economic welfare and development ceased to be the responsibility of their colonial administrators but of the international community. • Newly independent states as members of the UN could call on the UN, its family of organizations and agencies, and UN members to assist them in a wide range of areas, economic, financial humanitarian, health, education. • The Cold War, 1948-90, created a competition between the US and the USSR and their allies to “win the hearts and minds” of the developing, or Third World or their governments and to support allies. This included both economic and military assistance. • Some countries “graduated” from being aid recipients (not totally) to become “emerging markets/emerging powers. • Foreign economic assistance is now directed mostly at the “poorest of the poor,” principally in Sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia and Latin America, but governance, humanitarian, counter-narcotics programs and major infrastructure projects, continue to be funded world-wide. • Many question the value of economic assistance without improvements in governance and transparency in developing countries and overdependence on foreign aid. • The UN’s Milllennium Development Goals, adopted in the year 2000, pledged to reduce poverty world-wide by 2015, and resulted in an increase in foreign assistance by major donors. • China, India and the Asian Tigers (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia) have provided an alternative path to development by promoting free markets, capital investment, educational development, information-age services
  26. 26. 26 Expansion of Western Culture and Values • Globalization is often considered “Americanization” of other countries. This includes the popularity of US/British culture, including pop culture: movies, TV, videos, music, news, literature, plastic and performing arts, fast food and consumerism. • The growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web and the multiple applications have facilitated communication of all information, including cultural information. • Western values come with Western culture and sometimes leads to a “culture clash.” • More traditional societies—in the Middle East, Asia and Africa—resist culture and values that conflict with their deeply held mores on the role of women, marriage, sexual freedom and preferences, the role of the family. • Religious differences and differences in religious tolerance have also tended to be accentuated by globalization. These clashes reach the stage of ideological conflict, inciting social and political tensions, violence and even terrorism. • On the other hand, the spread of Western ideas about human rights, democracy, philanthropy and the value of human life have improved the lives of millions of people. Globalization has spread Western culture throughout the world. The ascendancy and dominance of the United States, Europe and other “Western” countries such as Canada and Australia economically, technologically, informationally and militarily following WWII have promoted Western Culture.
  27. 27. 27 The US and Globalization • The US is the center of both world finance and technological innovation and has the world’s most vibrant democracy, best higher education system and strongest military. • However, Globalization has brought the rise of “emerging powers” that have the capacity to catch up with and even surpass the US in several areas, principally economic. China is the most likely candidate to achieve such advancement, followed by the other BRICs (Brazil, Russia and India). • The US economic recession of 2008-09, will cause many to question American economic and financial leadership • The US is vulnerable to the kind of “imperial overstretch,” where military involvement abroad overtakes the capacity of the nation’s economy to sustain it. • However, until now, no other power appears to be close to amassing the kind of power that the US has. • More likely will be a international system in which problems are addressed multilaterally rather than unilaterally. •Globalization has influenced the relative power of nations in the international system, giving rise to issues of “rise and fall” of nations and the future status of the United States, currently the only superpower in the world. •National Power is a complex combination of territorial size, population, economic strength and growth (in terms of GDP), natural resources, industrialization, educational level, technological development, political stability and the strength of the military. •Globalization’s strong forces of change result in creating “winners and losers’ in the area of global competition, especially in technological and economic terms. •The US has been a beneficiary of the free markets, free trade and free flow of financial resources that are at the heart of Globalization.
  28. 28. 28 Globalization and Private Empowerment • One of the strong aspects of Globalization has been the empowerment of the individual and private groups • This empowerment is both technological and political, fed largely by the growth of the internet and other forms of personal communication (cell phones, PDAs) and information sharing that allows for the rapid growth of networks. This is an Information Age phenomenon. • It is now possible for individuals or small groups to develop large organizations and businesses based on a good idea or concept, vastly expanding personal opportunity and entrepreneurship. • Globalization has empowered Civil Society to expand and collaborate more broadly, leading to greater solidarity networks. • It has also given rise to the advent of the “non-state actors” in international affairs, ranging from Multinational Corporations, to NGOs and terrorist groups and criminal networks. • Private empowerment represents both the hope and the risks of globalization.
  29. 29. 29 Global Governance? • The idea of “Global Governance” has been around for over 20 years. • It recognizes that in a world of accelerated globalization, some global solutions are necessary. • The essence of global governance is a coordination of efforts by governments, international organizations, civil society and other groups of efforts to reduce or manage the threats of globalization and to promote the benefits of globalization. • An important UN report, Our Global Neighborhood, by The Commission on Global Governance, a distinguished panel of international public servants, was issued in 1995, but was not universally well received. • Global governance is opposed by those who defend the sovereignty of states and mistrust, fear large multinational bureaucracies. • Global Governance is not World Government. In fact, global governance would not be necessary, were there a world government. • Global governance refers to the political interaction that is required to solve problems that affect more than one state or region when there is no power of enforcing compliance. Problems arise; networks of actors are constructed to deal with them in the absence of an international analogue to a national government. This system has been termed “disaggregated sovereignty.” • Some, however, question the inefficacy of such informal regimes.
  30. 30. 30 Globalization and the Future • Globalization is dynamic by its very nature, thereby • driving us towards thinking of the future. • Futurologists must take Globalization into • consideration in making forecasts, scenarios. • Globalization is a disruptive process, impacting and changing all aspects of human and natural life. • It is no longer possible to think of the future without putting Globalization at the center of our analysis. • A number of futures studies, by the US Government, academics and private think tanks use a Globalization-based assessment. • Forecasting must include both trend analysis and judgments about the non- linear processes which lead to “Future Shock.” • Uncertainty is the leitmotif of Post-Modern Globalization. • We have difficulty foreseeing unintended or collateral consequences of our actions or of the inter-relationship of underlying global processes. (See Lovelock’s Gaia Model (and elaboration by TCC professor Thomas I. Ellis) for an attempt at systems integration: •
  31. 31. 31 The Future of Globalization • Some writers speak of the “End of Globalization,” meaning • that some event (9/11, the 2008-9 Recession) or process (high petroleum prices) will make nations turn away from a • more connected world and turn inward, shutting themselves off from vulnerabilities of Globalization. • Some Marxists protest Globalization as merely the manifestation of “late capitalism” fraught with injustices, inequalities and exploitation that must be opposed by civil society groups and “progressive” movements. • Other single issue groups, such as environmental groups oppose the uncontrolled march of economic growth and its affects on nature and the human habitat. This is sometimes called “wild globalization” • It is possible to view globalization as an unstoppable process, given its roots in technological advancement which continues. • However, it is important to bear in mind that the First Wave of Globalization, ended with WWI, gave way to a period in which nations withdrew behind high tariff barriers leading to the Depression and WWII. • That lesson, is driving governments to avoid restricting trade in the face of new economic stress. • Most likely, Globalization, with its benefits and risks, is here to stay.
  32. 32. 32 Study References • An excellent textbook on Globalization issues for college students: Richard Payne, Global Issues: Politics, Economics and Culture Second Ed. (New York, Pearson Longman), 2009 • Globalization Websites: Levin Institute, SUNY - Yale Center for the Study of Globalization: Great Globalization site, excellent bibliography: • 3 Books by NYT Columnist Thomas Friedman: The Lexus and the Olive Tree; The World is Flat; Hot, Flat and Crowded • Riorden Wilkinson, ed.,The Global Governance Reader, Routledge, 2005