Geology and Mineral Investment Opportunities in South Sudan
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN
MINISTRY OF PETROLEUM AND MINING
GEOLOGY AND MINERAL
IN SOUTH SUDAN
DR. ANDU EZBON ADDE
3. Minerals: occurrences & work done.
4. Investment opportunities in minerals and
5. Positive investment factors in minerals.
6. Challenges of investments in minerals.
• Rock types and structures optimum for metallic
• Precious and base metals occur in several places
• Industrial minerals/building materials are
• Insignificant exploration work done; no existing mine.
• Many investment opportunities in mineral sector.
• Government tailors mining laws to attract investors.
• Precambrian gneisses, meta-sediments, basic
volcanics and recent sediments at the lowlands.
• Crystalline rocks cover about 40 % of the surface
• Granitic intrusions of various ages.
• Metamorphism: high, medium and insignificant
• Multi-phase deformation: folding and faulting.
• Metallic mineralization in Precambrian and
3. MINERAL OCCURRENCES AND EXPLORATION
WORK DONE IN SOUTH SUDAN.
• There are a vast number of metallic minerals spread
all over the South Sudan: gold, copper, zinc, lead,
manganese, iron, silver, tin, etc.
• Also industrial minerals exist: marble, limestone,
dolomite, kaolin, clay, asbestos, etc.
• Apart from gold at Kapoeta and Luri; copper at Hofrat
Ennahas, bauxite/iron ore at Wau area and marble at
Kapoeta no other mineral has been prospected to an
• A lot of work needs to be done on the minerals to
develop them exploitation subsequently
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN MINERALS
AND GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS.
4.1. Investment opportunities in gold.
• Areas of gold occurrences in S.Sudan
• Eastern Equatoria State: All Kapoeta Counties +
• Central Equatoria State: Luri, Lobonok, Yei.
• Western Equatoria State: Mundri-Amadi.
• Western Bahr El Ghazal State: Khor Ghana, Wau
• Upper Nile State: Sobat County.
• Some prospecting/exploration work was done on
gold in the Kapoeta Counties and Luri in Juba County;
other areas are still untouched.
Fineness of South Sudan gold Neutron
activation analytical results
Variable Composite gold Samples Av
C1 C2 C3 C4
Au % 89.1 84.4 90.5 76.0 85.0
Ag % 6.3 10.9 3.9 4.4 6.4
Fe, % 4.2 4.1 5.3 5.9 4.9
T ppm 3395 5840 3470 -- 3179
Sb ppm 180 294 153 -- 156
Hg, ppm 77 75 39 114 76
Au Fineness [a] 891 844 904 881 880
Au Fineness[b] 934 886 959 945 930
Au/Ag ratio 14.1 7.7 23.2 17.3 13.3
[a] = 1000 Au [Au+Ag+Fe+Te+Sb+Hg]-1
[b] = 1000 Au[Au+Ag]-1
[Source; Adde, 1990]
Pure gold is 24 carat or 1000 Fine; so South Sudan gold is of a very high purity it is
worth investing in.
• The main copper-gold ore occurrence is at Hofrat Ennahas,
Western Bahr El Ghazal State.
• Prospected and explored by several companies, including
Billington of South Africa.
• Ore is strata bound with minor later basic intrusions.
• Associated with radioactive minerals.
• Assays commonly 1 – 5 % Cu and up to 3 g Au/t.
• Ore resources 40 – 60 m tons.
• Mineralisation open at depth and laterally to CAR boarder.
4.2. Investment opportunities in copper and gold.
• Three main areas of bauxite prospects: West of Wau City, North
and east of Juba City and West of Yambio town.
• Wau bauxite area 30 km by 30 km prospected by grid drilling.
• Bauxite layer 4 – 20 m thick, usually underlies laterite.
• Samples assay 20 - 30 % Al203, occasionally > 40 % Al203
• Bauxite ore resources estimated at about 3 b tons.
• Occurrence open to the west and north.
4.3. Investment opportunities in bauxite.
• Extensive iron ore occurrence north and west of Wau City to
borders with Sudan and CAR respectively.
• Represented by iron caps as discontinuous bodies.
• Generally overlies bauxitic layer.
• Chip and percussion samples assay 30 – 70 % Fe203, occasionally
> 80 % Fe203.
• Variable ore zone thickness: 10 – 30 m.
• Possible tonnage in 900 km2 drilled area about 10 b.
• Ore occurrence thickens to the north.
• Unlimited investment opportunity.
4.4. Investment opportunities in iron ore.
Other minerals of widespread occurrences in South
• Zinc; around Torit, right to border with Uganda and south of
Juba to Kajokeji.
• Manganese; south and west of Juba to Yei and to the borders
with Uganda and Zaire.
• Lead; mostly east and north of Yei, also towards Juba and Torit.
• Nickel and cobalt occur in patches in soil samples.
4.5. Investment opportunities in other metallic
• Areas of carbonate occurrences in South Sudan
Despite presence of marble, there is no cement plant in South
4.6. Investment opportunities in cement
No Area, State Carbonate Status
1 Kapoeta, Eastern Equatoria State Marble Explored
2 Kajokeji, Central Equatoria State Marble/limestone Unknown
3 Kineti, Torit County; Eastern
4 Mangayat, Raja County; Western
Bahr El Ghazal State
Ferroan dolomite Prospected
Kapoeta marble for cement:
• A lot of construction needing cement in South
• All cement in South Sudan imported and sold at
640 US $ a ton: too expensive for most people
and still getting more expensive.
• Kapoeta marble explored for a cement solution.
‾ Chip sampling plus trenching.
‾ Drilling and logging.
‾ Sample assays and data interpretation.
‾ Marble reserves calculation.
• AVERAGE ASSAYS OF KAPOETA MARBLE, CLAY AND KLINKER
• High CaO and low MgO contents will produce a high quality cement.
(Sources, Klockner, 1978).
Marble Clay Klinker
CaO 52.67 1.80 41.89
MgO 0.81 1.53 0.97
Al2O3 0.47 17.03 3.98
Fe2O3 0.30 8.31 2.00
SiO2 1.93 57.29 13.67
LOI*/others 43.82* 14.04 37.49
• Kapoeta Cement Moduli – cement quality.
(Sources, Klockner, 1978)
• The Kapoeta raw materials for cement production will produce a high grade
cement that is in a high demand; therefore it is worth investing in cement in
the South Sudan.
Modul Value Optimum reference
Lime standard 95 90-94, ordinary grade cement.
95-98, high grade cement.
Silica modulus 2.47 2.4 – 2.7
Iron modulus 1.81 1.5 – 2.5
Harmonic modulus 2.12 1.7 – 2.2
• Aggregates; for buildings, roads, bridges, airports etc.
Many fresh rocks to crush and sell to markets nearby.
• Clays for brick making. At each depression thick clay
• Sands. Thick deposits of sands along river courses for
• River gravels; along major winding streams. Sieved to
desired sizes; preferred by heavy duty civil engineers.
4.7. Investment in building/construction materials.
• A huge amount of white sand deposit at current river beds.
• Khor Romula sand, south of Juba studied for exploitation.
• Sample assays reveal > 95 % Si02 and insignificant Fe2O3
• Unlimited tonnage and replenished yearly by erosion and
• Huge and increasing demand for glass and bottles.
4.8. Investment in glass and bottles industry.
• There is no geological or geophysical lab in South
• A lab is vital for preparing and analysing samples.
• Lab data set the way forward and check quality of
materials for controls of operations.
• A reliable and fast lab is a money maker.
4.9. Investment opportunities in laboratories.
Types of Labs to invest in.
• A preparatory lab – for bringing samples to analysis
stage: crushing, grinding, pelletization, thin
sectioning, separation, dissolution, standardisation.
• Chemistry Lab – for analysis of samples: soil, rock,
ore, water etc for desired elements.
• Physical Lab – XRD, hardness strength, conductivity,
resistivity, radioactivity, etc tests.
• Heavy mineral Lab – Separation, identification, etc.
• Petrographic Lab – Thin sectioning, mineralogy,
• Efficiency in work reflects the measure taken in
training/teaching the employee to do the work.
• Nations, families, groups are prepared to pay highly
for a high quality training.
• Apart from general and university education South
Sudan lacks professional training institutes in the
mineral and related sector.
• South Sudanese are sent abroad for short trainings; it
is found insufficient and unreliable.
• Home based training will cost less but train more
4.10. Investment opportunities in study/training
Where to invest in Training.
• Investment in practical geology, geochemistry and
geophysical training on home soil and materials.
• Investment in Lab technology to cater for exploration
• Investment in metallurgy for extraction of metals
from home ores.
• Investment in drilling industry for supplying the many
oil and water drilling companies with competent
South Sudanese drillers.
• Investment in hydrogeology and hydrochemistry for
monitoring water availability and suitability for
• Geological factors convenient for vast mineralizations
• Vast minerals to choose from.
• Some background information available for a smooth
• Mining Laws designed to encourage investors.
• High demand for building materials in local market
• Local personnel eager for work in the mineral sector.
5. Positive factors for investment in minerals and
related things in S. Sudan.
• Land-locked Country – transport of heavy equipment a
• Poor road infrastructure – access to sites rather hard.
• Most minerals occur in remote areas – haul and
accommodate manpower at work place at a cost.
• Training of local staff – to level of proficiency at a cost.
• After-shocks of a long war ebbing slowly – long time to
adjust to civil life.
6. Challenging investment factors in minerals.
• About 40 % of the South Sudan area is covered
by crystalline rocks.
• These rocks are folded and fractured to provide
• Several minerals are found in the South Sudan at
• The Government is all out to lure investors.
• Many investment opportunities exist in the