Most library RFID operates at 13.56MHz (usually called ‘HF’) but some in Asia and Australia have opted for UHF – which doesn’t do self-service well and doesn’t support a data model. Smart cards use a different frequency again.
The basic operation. Note that the LMS stays in control of all decision making
Borrower cards add a new frequency to deal with. Fine and fee payments require more transactions to manage the process because SIP doesn’t handle this well.
ILL – easier with a standard data model since every library has its identity stored on the tag. Accessions – an RFID tunnel reads boxes of books (without the need for opening) to check contents Smart displays - Displays are “live” so removal of an item from the display can trigger an action – a video of the author might play or links to other resources might be displayed – both on a PC linked to the display Interactive stock – live shelves constantly report what is on the shelves – and where. So far only implemented on very small scale Guiding – Tags on shelves can be read by devices (smartphones?) to help users find their way round the library Offline circulation – needs new standard to improve security of circulation when LMS link is down New models – RFID suppliers beginning to deliver LMS independent solutions for circulation
New solutions will require standard approaches Standard data/standard comms protocols – if market to be large enough to attract developers
Other standards are… but not if you want to benefit from using a national standard UKDM is the key. It’s a short list of all the elements in 28560-2 for UK library use RFID Alliance comprises all UK RFID library suppliers – they are developing support and will test each other’s tags for compliance
No need to buy everything from a single supplier – pick best of breed Make sure tags are compliant – and that solutions work with other LMS
Not a real concern – caused by confusion in US and EU. But it is something that will rumble on…
30 minute guide to Library RFID
RFID in the Library A 30 minute guide Mick Fortune Library RFID Ltd.
On today’s tour…• RFID - What it is• How it works and what it’s used for• What do libraries love about it• Things to consider• Where to get advice
…using different frequencies…Band LF HF UHF MicrowaveFrequency 30–300kHz 3–30MHz 300 MHz–3GHz 2–30 GHzTypical RFID 125–134 13.56 MHz 433 MHz or 865 – 956MHz 2.45 GHz 2.45 GHzFrequencies kHzApproximate less than 0.5 We 433 MHz = up to 100 metres Up to 1.5 metres a865-956 MHz = 0.5 to 5 metres Up to 10mread range metre re (m less than 1 ostTypical data kilobit per l kbit/s 433–956 = 30y) h 2.45 =100 kbit/ sere! Approximately 25 kbit/s Up to 100 kbit/stransfer rate second (kbit/s) Short-range, low data Higher ranges, reasonable Long range, high data transfer Long ranges, high data transfer data rate (similar to GSM transfer rate, cannotCharacteristics rate, rate, concurrent read of <100 items, phone), penetrates water penetrate water or penetrates cannot penetrate water or metals but not metal. metal water but not metal.
…for different purposes• Road Tolls• Travelcards• Warehousing• Drug security• Brand Protection• Cats (http://twitter.com/GusAndPenny) (http://tweetingcatdoor.com )
What do libraries love about it?• Self service – liberates staff and borrowers – extends opening hours• Stock management – easier stocktaking – tracing items• …and much more
How the Process WorksRFID in action: Library Self Service
Self service loans – a simple modelProcessesrules Sends data to LMS Reads data from items Library Manageme nt System data from Receives Clears security LMS (LMS)LibraryManagement RFID Device(s) Item(s)System (LMS)
The (Slightly) More Complex Model se ems u and it ies wers Processes Borro inesechnolog tt rules iffe f dPayre SIP Data exchanged plus …? RFID/LMS Clears securityLibrary ManagementSystem (LMS) RFID Device(s) Item(s)
and what else?• ILL• Accessions• Smart displays• Interactive stock• Guiding• Offline circulation• New models for library management systems
(Some) Things to Consider• Standards• Choice and Interoperability• Privacy
Standards• For data – so we can all read the tags (ISO 28560/UK Data Model)• For communication – to improve performance, map onto tag data and increase range of services (SIP 3.0/NCIP/Web services)
ISO 28560-2 and Data Models• Other standards are available• UK agreed on ISO 28560-2• UKDM is a simpler subset• RFID Alliance roles – Development – Compliance testing
Choice and Interoperability?• Choose the solutions you want – Kiosks, shelf readers, accession tunnels• Test interoperability – Are tags fully compliant with standards? – Will solutions work with other LMS?
Privacy• EU directive• Data on tags – For Items – For Borrowers• A real concern?
Where to get advice/help.• BIC www.bic.org.uk/e4libraries/• MLA Guidelines http://www.mla.gov.uk/news_and_views/press_releases/2010/~/media/Files/pdf• NAG – coming soon• RFID List https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A0=LIB-RFID-UK• Library RFID Blog http://www.mickfortune.com/Wordpress/
Thank You! Mick Fortune Library RFID Ltd. t. +44 1865 727411 m. +44 7786 625544 e. firstname.lastname@example.org w. www.libraryrfid.co.uk b. www.mickfortune.com/Wordpress