RFID: What is it? Where is it going? Is it right for you library?

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Introduction to RFID technology in libraries including survey of current RFID-enabled products available review of standards and protocols pertinent to RFID. Also includes consortia, procurement, and other issues related to RFID in libraries.

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  • Bottom photo courtesy of Huntsville-Madison County Public Library
  • Passive tags are not powered, they rely on the Reader to generate the powerActive tags have batteries (bridge toll transponders, for example)RFID tags come in three frequencies:Low Frequency (125 KHz)High Frequency 13.56 MHz)Ultra High Frequency (400 MHz to 1 GHz)Most libraries in the U.S. use HF tagsThe current standard applies to HF tags only
  • Issues with media
  • Installed in 2003:The new fully-automated book return system is the first of its kind in Oregon, and it cost the library $2 million, Library Director Connie Bennett said.Source: http://dailyemerald.com/2003/01/07/a-new-page-for-eugenes-library/
  • West Palm Beach County
  • Stock smart smartstock™ 500 allows multiple RFID-tagged items to be identified at box level, still held in their original packaging. Items may be received and assigned according to status through integration with the ILS. List Price: Call for price. Bibliotheca, 877-207-3127, www.bibliotheca.comThe RFID smartstock™ 600 Inventory System performs a continuous on-shelf inventory of all items and can be retrofitted to almost any existing shelving. A full search can be performed based on database information from the last inventory, by detecting tags that are affixed directly into individual books. List Price: Call for price. Bibliotheca, 877-207-3127, www.bibliotheca.comDrop & go check-in When items are returned on the Intelligent Trolley, materials are identified and checked in and RFID security is reactivated simultaneously. The info column houses the SIP2 connection, which communicates with your ILS. As soon as materials hit the trolley, they are available for checkout. List Price: Call for price. NedapLibrix, www.nedaplibrix.com; also available fromDEMCO, 800-356-1200, demco.comLyngsoe LibraryMate and Reservation GarageThe LibraryMate® 3200 is designed for patron self-service check-out and check-in of library materials. The self-service station is extremely user-friendly and shows on the screen, both in text and pictures, what the patron must do to execute a check-out or check-in procedure. The electrically adjustable counter height allows comfortable ergonomic position for all users, children, adults or wheelchair users.RFID Check-outCheck-inRenewWhen returning library materials, the patron will be guided through the check-in process and instructed where to place the materials by the Library Mate® 3200, e.g. in a Lyngsoe Reservation garage. Reservation Garage confirms items (RFID and barcode) that are dropped in
  • In option 1: RFID reader is handled via keyboard wedge. Security is usually switched on and off with a hot key.Option 2: how good the proprietary solution is varies dramatically. Some vendors (RFID and ILS) are better than others and quality of integration can also depend on the relationship between the ILS vendor and RFID vendor.
  • In general the 3M Enhanced Staff Client works very well and they’ve been around long enough and have good relationships with most vendors (internationally) that it is a common choice for people using 3M RFID systems. 3M Enhanced Staff Client is proprietary code.Some people actually choose the “keyboard wedge” approach because it is faster. And if you stay in one screen (check-in), the security on the item can be switched very easily (without even needing the hot key).
  • RFID integration with Innovative systems is even more limited. In order to get the “enhanced integration” which means anything beyond that keyboard wedge, the library has to pay for Innovative’s Item Status API. For some libraries, this has forced them to migrate to a different ILS before going to RFID.Other libraries just pay the money for the integration – which as you can see by this thread in an Innovative User Group – isn’t always very good. Without the Item Status API in Millennium (and presumably Sierra), the RFID system is rendered a bar code scanner and a hot key is used to switch security on and off. This thread is from 2010
  • I’ve been a member of the NCIP Standing Committee now for six months and have only seen the following vendors represented: OCLC, Polaris, Relais, TLC, Ex LibrisAnd one library: University of Pennsylvania (EZ Borrow and Borrow Direct)
  • 3000 based on NXP website claims that over 3,000 libraries worldwide have introduced RFID to millions of customers.Update: New analysis from Frost & Sullivan (http://www.autoid.frost.com), Global Passive RFID Market, finds that the market earned revenues of more than $2.98 billion in 2012 and estimates this to reach $11.58 billion in 2018.Read more here: http://www.heraldonline.com/2013/06/10/4931492/frost-sullivan-popularity-of-item.html?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_content=359153#storylink=cpy
  • The U.S. Data Profile includes two mandatory data elements: Primary Object ID (e.g. barcode) and Tag Content Key. The field, Owner Library, is also recommended. The reason Owner Library is recommended is that the combination of the Primary Object ID (e.g. barcode) with the Owner Library provides for a nationally (and possibly globally) unique item identifier. This has ramifications for how the tags could be used to support ILL and resource-sharing workflows. The U.K. Data Profile, also based on ISO 28560-2, makes Owner Library mandatory (this is the only difference between the U.S. and U.K. Data Profiles). By limiting the mandatory fields to just the barcode number and tag content key, the Revision Working Group provided a way for libraries to continue to use the tags much like they do today. This minimalist approach provides an acceptable way forward for libraries for whom patron privacy concerns are paramount.
  • Supply Chain StageMany people involved in library RFID (this author included) hope to see tags placed in new items at the manufacturer stage so that they can be used for multiple purposes along the way. This Supply Chain Stage field exists to support this vision. Once an item becomes a “library item,” this field would be encoded with “64.” The data model defines other numbers that are associated with other stages including manufacturer (16), publisher (24), distributor (32), and jobber (48). This field is used so that fields can be interpreted correctly depending on where they are in the supply chain. For example, the Primary Item Identifier in a library is the library’s barcode number. However, a book distributer may encode the EPC code into the Primary Identifier.Subsidiary of an Owner LibraryThis field is to be used in addition to the Owner Institution field (or Alternative Owner Institution field). It does not use ISIL or ISIL-compatible codes. It can be a short alphanumeric string to identify individual outlets associated with a library. The expectation is that this field will be used to identify home branches for material owned by the Owner Institution. This field could also be used to support floating or rotating collections management.
  • Set Info allows the library to encode information about multipart sets onto the tag. The field contains the total number of items in the set and the part number of the item to which the tag is affixed. Some libraries are already taking advantage of this data element.
  • Type of Usage is a field that provides additional information about the intended use of the item. For example, an item can be tagged as a circulating item or as reference material or as adult material (e.g. R-Rated Movie). Using the tag this way would allow the circulation and security system to prevent a patron from checking out a reference book while the ILS was down, or a teen from checking out an R-Rated movie.
  • It is unfortunate that the proposed data profile doesn’t specify that Title should remain unlocked. If locked, information about the content of the tagged item is stored on the tag (Title). None of the other fields contain any personally identifying information or even specific information about the content of the item so even if they were locked, it wouldn’t pose a particular privacy concern. Title however, is a field that many libraries would choose to leave blank once an item goes into circulation.
  • Another field, GS1-13, raises the same concerns as Title. GS1-13, or the UCC Code as it is known in the U.S., can be used for the ISBN or ISSN number by pre-pending ‘978’ or ‘979’ (ISBN) or ‘977’ (ISSN) to the number. ISBN numbers are easy enough to associate with a particular title. While some libraries might want to use this field to provide additional services for patrons, many others will insist that this field be left blank on circulating material. Specifying that this field remain unlocked would have provided support for this latter group.The ISBN number could be used in interesting ways for library patrons. For example, electronic Reader’s Advisory Services can be provided based on the ISBN number. Recommendations could be provided to patrons based on items they are checking out or returning or perhaps at a special “Get Recommendations” kiosk that could be used to find another book like the one they’d just enjoyed reading. Each library will need to find the right balance between patron privacy concerns and providing convenient and expansive library services. The trend has been toward more convenience with much less concern about privacy but this varies quite a bit from community to community. Allen, Anita L. (2011). Unpopular Privacy: What Must We Hide. New York, Oxford University Press.  
  • The Shelf Location field can be used to specify where an item should be shelved. In addition to encoding the actual LC or Dewey number in this field, the library could also specify Adult Fiction or Entrance Display in this field. This field could be useful when sorting material based on info on the RFID tag. For example, the sorter could be programmed to sort all Adult Fiction to one bin and Entrance Display to another. While this is possible already, it requires the sorter to communicate with the ILS. With the information on the RFID tag, the additional sorting granularity could be accomplished independent of an ILS connection. InventoryTwo-way communication with the ILS
  • Supplier Identifier and Order Number could contain data useful in the receiving functions of a library. If used, new items arriving at the library could be received without needing to individually scan each item. This would dramatically improve the receiving workflows in the library’s Technical Services department.  Many libraries are already using EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) in their workflows. EDI allows items to be ordered and invoiced electronically. Theoretically, receiving can also be performed electronically but it is usually implemented last (if at all). This is partly because libraries often receive partial orders and also because they feel more confident verifying that the packing slip actually matches what is in the shipment. Libraries are more comfortable unpacking the box, scanning in each item as received, and putting them on a book cart. Using Supplier Identifier and Order Number, the library could receive all items in a box and verify the contents without actually having to handle each item, or even opening the box. An RFID tunnel is a piece of equipment designed for this purpose. It is common outside of the U.S. but only recently has an RFID vendor included one in their product line.
  • Using ILL Borrowing Institution and IL Borrowing Transaction ID could eliminate much of the paperwork and labor associated with performing ILL transactions. The ILL Borrowing Institution (perhaps in combination with other fields) can be used in sorting systems to route outbound ILL items to the appropriate delivery route and location (if part of a closed delivery system) or to the shipping department if the item needs to be sent out via a shipping service. The ILL Borrowing Transaction ID represents the key to the entire ILL transaction in terms of both the borrowing and lending libraries’ workflow. Whatever ILL software is used to initiate the transaction, the data is associated with a transaction ID. By writing that transaction ID to the tag, each library is freed from filling out paperwork that needs to travel with the item. Referencing the transaction ID in the shared ILL software would simply pull up all the pertinent information.
  • ALA Intellectual Freedom Committee Privacy and Confidentiality Guidelines (2005)In 2005, the ALA’s Intellectual Freedom Committee and the Office for Information Technology Policy developed “RFID in Libraries: Privacy and Confidentiality Guidelines” which were based on the work of a task force convened by Book Industry Study Group but went further. The guidelines were adopted by ALA Council at ALA’s 2005 Midwinter Meeting.
  • ALA Intellectual Freedom Committee Privacy and Confidentiality Guidelines (2005)In 2005, the ALA’s Intellectual Freedom Committee and the Office for Information Technology Policy developed “RFID in Libraries: Privacy and Confidentiality Guidelines” which were based on the work of a task force convened by Book Industry Study Group but went further. The guidelines were adopted by ALA Council at ALA’s 2005 Midwinter Meeting.
  • Watch for developments in the UK for more useful recommendations about RFID and privacy.
  • In regards to health, a literature review of various health agencies found that currently available research and studies on radio frequency exposure to devices in the frequency range at which an RFID system for libraries operates do not suggest any health risks from radiofrequency (RF) exposures below guideline levels. However, agencies and organizations that have researched the possible health effects of RF on humans all agree that further research is needed to address uncertainties in current RF knowledge. In addition, health agencies advise that manufacturers of medical devices and security systems should provide sufficient information about current and new products to minimize the risks of emissions from security systems interfering with electrically powered active medical devices, such as pacemakers
  • Focus is on privacy (not data protection or data security):Data Protection: ensures appropriate collection, consent, correction and use of data collected by an organisation from their consumers & users• Data Security: protects all the organisation’s data including the data about individuals as well as other operational data held by the organisation• Privacy : provides an individual’s control over the use of collected data by organisations and protection from unauthorised collection of data from ICT in the individual’s possession
  • Non-ionising radiation has generally been seen as safe by regulatory bodiesRadio waves are a specific example of electromagnetic radiation.  We are swimming in an ocean of radio waves of various strengths and we’re starting to find some disturbing correlations:Exposure from powerline electromagnetic fields in the “Extremely Low Frequency” (ELF) range were thought to be harmless but are now being linked to childhood leukemia“Dirty Electricity” is the coupling of multi-frequency exposures from powerlines plus electronic devices. Has been found to cause diabetes, headaches, concentration problems, hyperactivity in children, confusing birds navigation systems, causing deformities in amphibians, .Panic attacks during MRIBeehive collapseChronic fatigueDeforestation Ozone depletionPre 20th century exposure:North poleSouth poleLightning21st century exposures:Possible exposures (from low frequency to high):ELFgrid transmission linesTransformerspower cableselectric motorsStovesHair dryersbattery chargersHF RadiowavesAM/FM RadioRFID tagsUHF and MicrowaveTelevision signals Microwave ovensSmart MetersUltra soundSmoke detectorsGPS satellite navigationRemote controlsWi-Fi networksWiMax networksBluetooth connections between electronic appliancesWireless security sensorsGarage door openersCar door remote locking keysCordless phones especially the base stations (UHF)Infrared Alarm systemsRemote controlsMotion detectorsHot furnacesLaser light in CD players UVFluorescent lightsIncandescent lightsX RaysX-Ray equipmentCosmic RaysSun Depending on where we live we may also be near enough to experience signals from other sources even though we may not have the equipment to capture themAir traffic control systemsAircraft instrument landing systemsRadar surveillanceMicrowave repeater systems used for broadband communications linksSpeed camerasVery low frequency radiation from electric fields radiating from high voltage electricity grid transmission lines, transformers and power cables Closer to home we submit ourselves to high levels of radiation from medical equipmentX Ray machinesX Rays from CAT scannersElectromagnetic fields from MRI scannersBut curiously many hospitals ban the use of mobile phones because their tiny transmitters might interfere with sensitive medical equipment Then we are all bathed in more general background sources of radiation most of which we can not avoid and some we can.High frequency radiation from the Sun and other artificial light sources at optical frequenciesInfra red radiation (heat) from the SunMan made heat and light sources High energy, short wavelength electromagnetic radiation such as ultra-violet rays, X rays and gamma rays can cause ionisation of other materials when present at high enough energies and this can cause serious and permanent damage to human tissue. This radiation may be found in nuclear installations and may also be used in controlled medical treatments. Such radiation may be found in the domestic environment but fortunately not at dangerous levelsLow level X rays from high voltage cathode ray tubes (CRT) formerly used in colour televisions and monitorsUltra-violet lamps and tanning equipmentGamma rays not normally present in the homeIonisation Effects of Electromagnetic RadiationIonisation is the breaking of chemical bonds holding matter together, releasing ions or electrons from the molecules or atoms, leaving two charged particles or ions: molecules with a net positive charge, and the free electrons with a negative charge. This can occur naturally by dissociation when salts are dissolved in aqueous solutions causing their constituent elements to separate into ions.In the case of electromagnetic radiation ionisation occurs in a more forcible manner when matter is bombarded with high energy photons. If the photon energy is high enough it can knock electrons out of molecules or atoms leaving positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons.The electromagnetic radiation spectrum diagram above shows how the photon energy increases with frequency and that at frequencies above the visible light spectrum, the photon energy of the radiation is sufficient to cause ionisation of the matter on which it impinges. Below the frequency of visible light, and this includes the emissions from microwave ovens and all the frequencies used for radio communications, the radiation is non-ionising since the photon energy of the radiation is so small that ionisation is not normally possible unless the intensity is exceptionally high. Long distance radio communications depend on ionisation of the upper layers of the earth's atmosphere by cosmic rays. The resulting free ions form a conductive blanket, known as theionosphere, which reflects radio waves enabling radio signals to reach beyond the horizon by bending around the curvature of the earth. Physiological Effects of Electromagnetic RadiationIonising radiation is particularly hazardous to living organisms because its effects are painless, cumulative and latent : you can't sense that radiation damage is happening and symptoms may take up to several weeks to develop. At frequencies above the upper end of the visible light spectrum, starting with ultra violet (UV) radiation, the photon energy becomes sufficient to cause ionisation damage to human body tissue. Overexposure can cause burns due to the heating effect of the radiation but prolonged exposure can result in chemical changes to the skin tissue. Ionisation can cause DNA mutation leading to tissue damage and the possible formation of cancerous tumours. At progressively higher frequencies, such as X-rays and above, the greater photon energy of the radiation not only causes increased damage but it penetrates deeper into the body with even more serious consequences. Source: http://www.mpoweruk.com/radio.htm
  • someone "using" ubiquitous computing engages some computational devices and systems simultaneously, and may not necessarily even be aware that they are doing so. ubiquitous computing a small, inexpensive, robust networked processing devices, distributed at all scales throughout everyday life and generally turned to distinctly common-place ends. For example, a domestic ubiquitous computing environment might interconnect lighting and environmental controls with personal biometric monitors woven into clothing so that illumination and heating conditions in a room might be modulated, continuously and imperceptibly. Another common scenario posits refrigerators "aware" of their suitably tagged contents, able to both plan a variety of menus from the food actually on hand, and warn users of stale or spoiled food.Contemporary devices that lend some support to this latter idea include mobile phones, digital audio players, radio-frequency identification tags, GPS, and interactive whiteboards.These RFID-based sensors will need to communicate in order to participate in the network of things. However, other computational devices within the likely ubicompjigsaw will not necessarily be using radio frequency for communication. Other protocols currently proposed or developed include ZigBee, Near Field Communication Technologies (NFC), Bluetooth and Wifi – all systems that offer local and personal area networks (LANs and PANs). Zigbee is focused on individual devices (such as smoke alarms, lamps and consumer electronics) that need a robust, low bandwidth, low cost, low power, peer-to-peer communication. NFC is designed for very short-range communication (devices have to almost touch for the signalling systems to work). The applications being developed for NFC to date revolve around situations where it is intuitive for devices to touch in order to communicate e.g. allowing mobile phones to act as electronic tickets or electronic cash wallets when pressed against a suitable reader or kiosk device.
  • Higher self-check rates smartbookdrops easier to self check out and self check in smart shelves that check in items and trigger holdsBetter A-V handling don’t need to visually inspect single media casesRecover lost material find misshelved, hidden itemsMore accurate catalog shelf check for anything other than “available for checkout”Pull holds faster look for items on pull listInventory more likely inventory can be done in a fraction of the time it would take using barcodesErgonomic benefits for staff check in 3-4 items at a time slide items over reader no handling of barcode scanner
  • AMH and RFID Should be Separate ProcurementsMany libraries are under the mistaken assumption that they must (or should) implement RFID when they move to automated materials handling.  This is not only wrong but it can be a costly assumption. First, there are AMH vendors that provide excellent products but are not themselves RFID vendors.  If you put out an RFP for both RFID and AMH, you won't get proposals from the AMH-only vendors.  This is extremely unfortunate because you will miss out on vendors that provide not only excellent products but competitive pricing.AMH systems operate equally well with RFID and barcodes.  There are differences in how certain functions work between the two systems but the differences are rarely significant enough to justify implementing RFID for the purposes of getting an AMH system installed.RFID Procurement PlanningIf you are about to initiate and RFID procurement, I recommend you include the following:Tags must be ISO 180003, Mode 1 compliantEncoding must be ISO 28560-2 compliantInclude the following data elements (at least): Primary Item Identifier (bar code)Content KeyOwner InstitutionThere are 22 optional data elements included in the U.S. Data Profile and it is the libraries responsibility to decide which ones to use and how to use them. Vendors can provide some advice but it is really the library's job to decide how they want to use the tags to improve their workflows and to interoperate with other libraries.  For example, there are elements that could be used to support ILL transactions or to assist with weeding.  In addition, it will be important to work with a library's resource-sharing partners to ensure that the security methodology being employed works across all the systems.Also, be aware that a library can use more than one "data profile" to accommodate their needs.  ISO 28560-2 includes a data element called the Tag Content Key.  This key provides a map of the data elements on the tag.  Therefore, as long as you include the Content Key, you can use more than one data profile (e.g. include the "Set Information" element only on material that has multiple parts).  Adding fields to the tag that won't be used just slows down the read time so it is important to think strategically about what to include on the tag and what NOT to include on the tag.
  • HF is also the basis of numerous standards such as ISO 14443, 15693, 18000-3. The first two relate to smartphones. The second two relate to libraries.
  • Issue is data security:Change the AFI – renders security systems uselessChange the memory or DSFID, renders the tag data useless, and possibly securityRemediationsUID Lookup – requires a database look-up of items that ILS recognizes as checked outUse EAS for security instead of AFI (back to two systems: one for identification and one for security)Lock memory, password protect AFI (requires a LOT of coordination or resource-sharing opportunities are lost, and requires proprietary tags [currently])Don’t worry about itData Protection: ensures appropriate collection, consent, correction and use of data collected by an organisation from their consumers & users• Data Security: protects all the organisation’s data including the data about individuals as well as other operational data held by the organisation• Privacy : provides an individual’s control over the use of collected data by organisations and protection from unauthorised collection of data from ICT in the individual’s possession
  • UHF Reading is quick and covers distances of eight to ten metres in the case of passive (non battery powered) tags. UHF has historically performed poorly in reading metals and liquids.HF High frequency reading works much better than UHF with metal objects and goods containing liquids, but is limited to a distance of up to one metre.Active UHF RFID Active (battery-powered) UHF tags send out a signal when they detect a properly configured RFID reader. They are used to track items up to 30 metres away and more, depending on the strength of the tag signal. Active tags are often used for high value inventory such as military hardware and vehicles, aviation equipment and some logistics processes.Inexpensive tags that can be read quickly and accurately at a distance are the winner in most scenarios (that’s UHF). The ultimate tag is small, thin, inexpensive, tolerates chemicals, water, reasonably high temperatures and rough handling-and its readability is not affected by the presence of metal or water. Figure out the metal and water part, and the rest is simple. - And they may be getting close to solving this problem.Source: http://www.rfidarena.com/2013/6/6/bombproof-rfid-smart-rfid-tag-manufacturing-makes-reading-next-to-metals-and-liquids-a-reality.aspx?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter
  • Metals detune and reflect RFID signals, while liquids absorb them. This has historically caused poor tag read range, unreliable reads, or no read whatsoever especially with Ultra High Frequency (UHF) tags. UHF tags that read well next to metal now exist, but they are not inexpensive.UHF tags are not the only ones in use, but their advantages have made them the gold standard.Here are some of the differences between types of RFID reading:UHF Ultra high frequency reading takes place in the 800 to 900 megahertz range. Reading is quick and covers distances of eight to ten metres in the case of passive (non battery powered) tags. UHF has historically performed poorly in reading metals and liquids.HF High frequency reading works much better than UHF with metal objects and goods containing liquids, but is limited to a distance of up to one metre.LF Low frequency reading is appropriate with read distances of less than 30 centimetres. LF doesn't work well with metal, but does work with beverage containers, produce and other items like thatPlanar Asymmetrically Fed Folded Antenna (PAFFA tags) – 3D tags (layers between substrate and antenna)Source: http://www.rfidarena.com/2013/6/6/bombproof-rfid-smart-rfid-tag-manufacturing-makes-reading-next-to-metals-and-liquids-a-reality.aspx
  • RFID: What is it? Where is it going? Is it right for you library?

    1. 1. RFID: What is it? Where is it going? Is it right for your library? Lori Bowen Ayre June 26, 2013 New Berlin Public Library Lori.Ayre@galecia.com
    2. 2. Every story about RFID begins with….
    3. 3. Working Agenda • Tags and Equipment • Library Protocols • Library RFID Standards • US Data Model • RFID Concerns • Cost Benefit and ROI • Other Considerations
    4. 4. RFID TAGS AND EQUIIPMENT
    5. 5. Two Primary Components 1. RFID Tag – aka “transponder” – composed of • substrate • chip • antenna 2. RFID Reader – aka “interrogator” – Built into • security gates • staff workstation pads • handheld readers • self-checks • sorters • etc
    6. 6. RFID Tag … and a chip attached to it … on a substrate e.g. a plastic foil ... an antenna, printed, etched or stamped ... A paper label with RFID inside
    7. 7. How Radio Frequency Identification Works
    8. 8. Types of Tags RFID Tags Low Frequency (LF) High Frequency (HF) Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Frequency 125 kHz 13.56MHz 400 MHz to 1GHz Operating Distance 30 cm to 1 meter 10 cm to 1 meter Passive: up to 25 meters Active: up to 100 meters Characteristics Short read range and read range is easier to control. Handle metal and water better than UHF. Can be affected by industrial noise. Slower data transfer rate. Cannot always communicate with multiple tags. Short read range (especially NFC tags). Read range is easier to control than UHF. Not as effective as LF in presence of metal and water but better than UHF. Unaffected by industrial noise. Can communicate with multiple tags simultaneously. Long read range. Fast reading of multiple tags. Less tag memory than HF. Poor performance around liquids and metals. Operate in a crowded frequency. Applications Library materials management and security, access control, banking cards, contactless payment systems, goods control, security. Asset tracking, supply chain, logistics, tool booths, real- time locating systems, container security, library material management and security (limited)
    9. 9. Libraries use Passive HF Tags • Passive – Unpowered – Rely on the reader to generate power to transmit data on tag • HF – High Frequency (13.56 MHz) – Current standard applies only to HF tags
    10. 10. Types of Library RFID Tags Form Factor/Name Used for Square Tags Books, Media Cases, Periodicals, Kits Multiple manufacturers Credit Card Tags / 3M ISO RFID Tag Books, Media Cases, Periodicals, Kits Multiple manufacturers 3M has their own version with modified antenna Donut/Hub Tags CDs, DVDs, BluRay Multiple manufacturers Full Coverage Media / Stingray CDs, DVDs, BluRay SMARTRAC Stingray FCI Smartag X-Range SmartLabel 500 Laptops, iPads, eReaders, etc Bibliotheca
    11. 11. RFID-Enabled Library Equipment • Staff Stations • Security Gates • Self Check-outs • Portable Wands and Handhelds • Sorters • Self Check-ins • Smart Shelves • Lockers, Dispensers, Kiosks • Bulk Readers
    12. 12. Sampling of Costs • Standard book tag: $ .16 • Stingray CD/DVD tag: $ .65 • Security Gates (single aisle): $7000 • Self check-out: $7000 • Add fines and fees: $2500 • Self check-in with sorter (3-7 bin): $50-$90K • Handhelds: $5k-$10K • Staff workstation: $1000
    13. 13. Converting Self-Check Out Machines • Most self-check machines can be easily converted to RFID • Just a matter of adding an RFID pad to existing system • 3M’s V-Series might need a wedgie
    14. 14. New RFID Self-Checks Come in Variety of Styles and Colors D-Tech: above Nedaplibrix: red MK Sorting: right
    15. 15. Bibliotheca • Smartserve 400/410 • Optional fines/fees and cash payment (on right) • Items placed in pocket for reading
    16. 16. Bibliotheca • Bibliotheca Smartserve 600 (right) with height adjustable counter. • Smartserve 200 (below) desktop model
    17. 17. Tech-Logic
    18. 18. 3M
    19. 19. Media Management • 3M Integrated Disk Media Unlocker integrated with 3M self check-out machines (left) • LATCorp – disc dispensers for staff (lower left) • Smartcases and Smartdispenser 200 by Bibliotheca (below)
    20. 20. Sorters • Vendors are: Tech- Logic, 3M, Lyngsoe, Bibliotheca, Envisionware, M K Sorting, PV Supa • Differences between products – Induction method – Mechanics of conveyor and sorter – Patron interface – Size of modules – Flexibility in configuration – Curb appeal
    21. 21. TechLogic Sorter • Only system that isn’t “one at a time” induction o “Deshingler” allows it to act more like traditional bookdrop o Requires several extra feet of conveyor run to make deshingle o no confirmation of check-in and no receipt • Only system that offers “loader/unloader” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=cSnQBsr Oxmw) • Can rough sort to book cart (https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=4WFor Mh0jI4)
    22. 22. Tech-Logic Sorter (2003)
    23. 23. 3M Sorters • Items pushed off conveyor with brush • Limited configurations • Bulky
    24. 24. 3M Sorters • SL Model (3-bin): entry level , limited configuration options, inexpensive • FX Model (7-bin): more options (up to 15 bins)
    25. 25. Bibliotheca/ITG Sorters • First Generation • Industrial • Issue with media due to metal and antennas • Bibliotheca phasing them out
    26. 26. Current Bibliotheca Sorters • Flexible configurations • Lots of options • Good curb appeal
    27. 27. Envisionware/P.V. Supa Sorters
    28. 28. Lyngsoe • The largest libraries in the country use Lyngose for their central sorters – NY Public (120 bin) – King County Library System (150 bin) • They also have very small and affordable sorters (3 bins) • Best for flexibility and curb appeal
    29. 29. Lyngsoe Sorters • 11-bin library sorter with self check-in and one staff induction • 26-bin branch delivery sorter
    30. 30. Self Check-in – Patron Interface to Sorter • RFID makes self check-in easier for patrons but it isn’t required
    31. 31. Handhelds • PDA style handhelds can do check-in and check-out • Wand style are for shelf- checking and inventory • None are great….yet
    32. 32. Other RFID Products • Bibliotheca SmartStock 500 to batch receive/check-in • Bibliotheca SmartShelves for real- time tracking of items • Intelligent Trolley – items get placed on shelf and are automatically checked in (Demco) • Lyngsoe Library and Reservation Garage (RFID or Barcode)
    33. 33. Staff Workstation • Composed of two components – RFID pad (antenna) – RFID reader – Software • Software options not ideal 1. RFID readers can be made to look like barcode scanners (to ILS) – which means security isn’t handled automatically 2. RFID vendor develops proprietary solution with each ILS
    34. 34. Example of Two Options: 3M Staff Workstation Model 896: Enhanced Pad Staff Workstation (Option 1) • “Integrates with many ILS vendors including Polaris and, coming soon, SirsiDynix. Please contact your consultant for the latest integrations. • Compatible with Innovative Interfaces Incorporated’s Millennium Item Status API” • Provides additional functionality (over wedge) with most ILSs • Proprietary – need 3M system to use it Model 895: Pad Staff Workstation (Option 2) • “Synchronized keyboard hot key feature allows simultaneous mode selection (check-in or checkout) for the ILS and workstation (only needed with Model 895) • Uses a unique software wedge to allow compatibility with most ILS/LMS (only needed with Model 895)” • Fast, limited
    35. 35. ILS Issue: Millennium Item Status API “Are there other Innovative libraries using the 3M Enhanced Pad Staff Workstation Model 896 with Innovative Item Status API? With the older 895 3M RFID pads, we were able to use the pads pretty much like barcode scanners, so we could use the RFID pads to enter barcodes for searching in MilCat, MilAcq, or anywhere else it was appropriate to enter a barcode. With the 896 pads and Item Status API, we are able to get Innovative to accept the barcode from the RFID pad only in checkin and checkout. Is that your experience also? - Susan” “We discovered the same thing you report, below, when we deployed the Item Status API with Tagsys tag pads from ITG. One of our greatest frustrations was having to scan the barcode on items in Search Holds mode. I don't think the issue is with the RFID vendor, it is a limitation on the modes that Innovative has enabled use of the Item Status API. We are able to use the tag pad readers with other modules (serials, and other Circ modes) in places that we use ITG's software interfaces (Apex tagging software and Circ control for checkin/out). -Leo “
    36. 36. Where to go next… QUESTIONS? Tags and Equipment Library Protocols Library RFID Standards US Data Model RFID Concerns Cost Benefit and ROI Other Considerations
    37. 37. LIBRARY PROTOCOLS
    38. 38. SIP2 • Protocol developed by 3M but available for use by everyone (non-proprietary) • Used to communicate with self checks, sorters, security gates, kiosks, dispensers, PC management systems, ebooks • Handles user authentication and most circulation transactions • SIP3 recently released and “donated” to NISO to manage. Still limited to circulation.
    39. 39. NCIP and NCIP2 • NISO standard developed to address ILS communication beyond circulation • Most often with resource-sharing systems, but also some self-check, sorters, and ebooks • Very extensible via system of “application profiles” using shared schema • Needs more active involvement of libraries, RFID vendors AND ILS vendors • Having standards saves libraries a LOT of money!
    40. 40. LCF • Library Communication Framework (LCF) developed in the UK in response to lack of established protocols for RFID technology • Framework helps define the necessary data elements and transactions that need to be supported by the ILS so that RFID technology can be leveraged • Vendors developing RFID products using LCF create opportunities for others to adopt the same approach (e.g. evolve standards) so that multiple proprietary solutions don’t evolve instead
    41. 41. Bibliotheca and SirsiDynix • Recently announced strategic partnership • Planning to develop enhanced RFID integration • May lead to new products that only SirsiDynix supports (at first) • Bibliotheca has said all their development globally will use LCF – meaning it will NOT be proprietary • This means other ILSs and RFID vendors could follow suit • We’ll see….
    42. 42. Where to go next… QUESTIONS? Tags and Equipment Library Protocols Library RFID Standards US Data Model RFID Concerns Cost Benefit and ROI Other Considerations
    43. 43. LIBRARY RFID STANDARDS
    44. 44. Current Standard • Current key standard for libraries: ISO 28560 • Three part standard – Part 1: Defines data elements – Part 2: Provides one encoding method option – Part 3: Provides another encoding option • NISO Recommendation for US Libraries is ISO 28560 Part 2 (aka 28560-2)
    45. 45. Evolution of Standards • Air communication standards came first – Defines how the tags and readers send information back and forth – Collision avoidance algorithms • Examples: – HF Tags: ISO 15693 and ISO 18000-3 (item level) – UHF Tags: EPC Gen2 (international supply chain)
    46. 46. Library and Worldwide RFID Activities Year Libraries Worldwide using RFID U.S. Library Activities RFID Activities Worldwide 2003 100 RFID Technology for Libraries (Library Technology Reports, Nov-Dec 2003) published ISO 15693 adopted Walmart and Dept of Defense request suppliers include RFID tags on pallets. 2004 >300 BISC Policy Statement on RFID ISO 18000-3, Mode 1 adopted FDA endorses use of RFID to combat drug counterfeiting. 2005 ALA IFC Privacy and Confidentiality Guidelines ISO 15692 Fixed Encoding Method (not library specific) adopted Gartner reports worldwide RFID spending expected to reach $504 million in 2005, $3 billion by 2010. 2006 Danish Data Model (DS/INF 163) for Libraries finalized. EPC Gen2 standard finalized for UHF tags 2007 600 Defense Dept. stops requiring RFID tags on trucks and cargo; using GPS and fleet management software instead. 2008 NISO RFID Working Group: Recommended Practice Gartner predicts worldwide RFID revenue to reach $1.2 billion in 2008; $3.5 billion by 2012. 2009 1500 Worldwide RFID spending hits $5.56 billion 2011 2400 ISO 28560 RFID for Libraries adopted. NISO tentatively recommends 28560-2 as U.S. Data Profile IDTechEx predicts value of entire RFID market will be $5.84 billion in 2010. 2012 >3000 U.S. Data Profile finalized IDTechEx report predicts 20 billion RFID tags annually will be required by apparel market alone within decade.
    47. 47. The Flow of Standards
    48. 48. Where to go next… QUESTIONS? Tags and Equipment Library Protocols Library RFID Standards US Data Model RFID Concerns Cost Benefit and ROI Other Considerations
    49. 49. U.S. DATA MODEL
    50. 50. Mandatory (ish) Data Elements Field Purpose/Codes Locking Primary Item ID Item identification Optional Tag Content Key Determining what other data is on the tag No Owner Library Use ISIL Code (see ISO 15511) Optional • Primary Object ID – Library barcode, used book stores SKU (?) • Tag Content Key – Index to fields on the tag • Owner Library (recommended) – Mandatory in UK; Recommended in U.S. – Inclusion of this field provides for a nationally unique identifier for each library item (good for ILL applications)
    51. 51. Optional Data Elements Field Purpose/Codes Locking Set Info Item properties Optional Type of Usage Coded list of type of item usage Optional Shelf Location Call number (inventory) Optional ONIX Media Format Item properties (ONIX code list) Optional Supplier Identifier Acquisitions processing Not recommended Order Number Acquisitions processing Not recommended ILL Borrowing Institution Use ISIL Code (see ISO 15511) No ILL Borrowing Transaction ID ILL transaction tracking No GS1-13 (UCC and ISBN) Identification Optional Alternative unique item identifier Identification Not recommended Local Data – A For local or regional use Optional Local Data – B For local or regional use Optional Title Identification Optional Product Identifier (local) Identification Optional Media Format Item properties (no code list defined) Optional Supply Chain Stage For multi-use (coded list) No Alternative Item Identifier Item identification Optional Alternative Owner Library Identifier Item identification (for codes not ISIL compliant) Optional Subsidiary of Owner Library Item Identification Optional Alternative ILL Borrowing Institution Support for ILL for non-ISIL code No Local Data – C For local or regional use Optional
    52. 52. About Locking Fields • Benefit of Part 2 over Part 3 is that individual elements can be locked • Locking fields might be necessary to protect against vandalism (more later) • Must balance security issues against long term use of tag beyond supply chain
    53. 53. Noteworthy Optional Elements • Set Info • Type of Usage • Title • UCC/ISBN/ISSN • Shelf Location • Fields supporting Receiving Processing • Fields supporting ILL Processing
    54. 54. Set Info • Field includes total number of items in set and part number of item • Especially useful for single disc media “sets” – case is one part and disc is another – when both parts are present, no visual inspection needed • Limited usefulness for bigger sets because overlapping tags interfere with one another
    55. 55. Type of Usage • So far….used to control use of material during offline circulation, e.g. – prevent kids from checking out R-Rated movies – prevent reference material from being checked out • Possible other uses – support floating collections – manage special collections or non-book uses (e.g. laptops, kits, other items borrowed inside library)
    56. 56. Title • Libraries don’t use this field (but they could) because of privacy concerns • Convenience may someday trump those privacy concerns (e.g. groovy smartphone app that displays book covers of all the titles of books on a shelf?) • Maybe be useful during receiving processing to verify contents of order but could then be blanked out during circulation
    57. 57. UCC/ISBN/ISSN • Another one to blank out during circulation but could possibly be useful for future developments, e.g. – Pull up reviews from Amazon by reading book’s RFID tag while standing in library – Have a “reader’s advisory kiosk” where patrons could hold up a book they like and get recommendations for similar titles
    58. 58. Shelf Location • Expected use is to support inventory • Expected content is an LC or Dewey number • Other possible uses: – Indicate a temporary location (Lucky Day) – Provide additional granularity in sorting – Use the tag to tell the ILS when an item has been moved
    59. 59. Fields Supporting Receiving Processing • Supplier Identifier – keep track of who supplies what making it easier to order additional copies • Order Number – read order number from items during receiving to verify all items are accounted for (without opening box) • Shelf location could be used to keep track of where items are as they are moving through receiving, cataloging, processing, etc.
    60. 60. Fields Supporting ILL Processing • ILL Borrowing Institution – Sort materials pulled to fill an ILL request to ILL shipping area – Use in consortial borrowing arrangements to sort directly to tote (without needing an ILS connection) • ILL Transaction ID – Could be used to pull up all pertinent record on an ILL transaction from the resource-sharing software and eliminate need for so much paperwork
    61. 61. Local Data Fields The World is Your Oyster! • Local Data – A • Local Data – B • Local Data – C These fields can be used in whatever way a library, consortium, or state desires.
    62. 62. Decision Points for Upgrading Current RFID System to US Standard
    63. 63. Where to go next… QUESTIONS? Tags and Equipment Library Protocols Library RFID Standards US Data Model RFID Concerns Cost Benefit and ROI Other Considerations
    64. 64. CONCERNS WITH RFID Privacy Health Ubiquitous Computing
    65. 65. Privacy • Hot listing: build a database of bar code numbers of interest and see who’s carrying those books • Tracking: keep track of someone based on multiple reads of a book they are carrying
    66. 66. RFID in Libraries Privacy and Confidentiality Guidelines (ALA IFC, 2005) • Notify users of about the library’s use of RFID technology • Label all RFID tag readers clearly so users know they are in use • Protect the data on RFID tags by using encryption if available • Limit the information stored on the RFID tag to a unique identifier or barcode • Block the public from searching the catalog by the unique identifier • Store no personally identifiable information on any RFID tag
    67. 67. RFID in Libraries Privacy and Confidentiality Guidelines (ALA IFC, 2005) • Notify users of about the library’s use of RFID technology • Label all RFID tag readers clearly so users know they are in use • Protect the data on RFID tags by using encryption if available NOT CURRENTLY AVAILABLE • Limit the information stored on the RFID tag to a unique identifier or barcode • Block the public from searching the catalog by the unique identifier • Store no personally identifiable information on any RFID tag
    68. 68. RFID in Libraries Privacy and Confidentiality Guidelines (ALA IFC, 2005) • Notify users of about the library’s use of RFID technology • Label all RFID tag readers clearly so users know they are in use • Protect the data on RFID tags by using encryption if available NOT CURRENTLY AVAILABLE • Limit the information stored on the RFID tag to a unique identifier or barcode • Block the public from searching the catalog by the unique identifier • Store no personally identifiable information on any RFID tag Bad Idea
    69. 69. STORE NO PERSONALLY IDENTIFIABLE INFORMATION ON ANY RFID TAG At least they offered up one good idea…
    70. 70. Health • Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) • Interfering with medical devices – Pacemakers – Hearing aids – Cochlear Implants
    71. 71. San Francisco Public Library 2005 Report “… currently available research and studies on radio frequency exposure to devices in the frequency range at which an RFID system for libraries operates do not suggest any health risks from radiofrequency (RF) exposures below guideline levels.”
    72. 72. UK Data Protection and Privacy Regulation Legislation working through the system that will require libraries (and anyone else using RFID) to – Conduct a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) – Notify the public of their use of RFID – Provide signage that summarizes outcome of the Privacy Impact Assessment
    73. 73. Medical Devices • No known issues with pacemakers or hearing aids • Issues with cochlear implants: “There is no risk of damage to the implant or equipment from these detectors but some users prefer to switch off their speech processor because they may hear a sound as they pass through. Occasionally the security system may be activated by the implant so so it is a good idea to have the ID card to hand.” - Source: British Cochlear Implant Group (2012)
    74. 74. Electromagnetic Radiation
    75. 75. We Don’t Really Know “We are very slowly beginning to undergo a paradigm shift in Western Medical Thinking from a chemical- mechanistic model of the human body to a more finely tuned electrical-system model.” B. Blake Levitt Electromagnetic Fields: A consumers guide to he issues and how to protect ourselves
    76. 76. Ubiquitous Computing • “Machines that fit the human environment instead of forcing humans to enter theirs” • Small, inexpensive, robust, networked devices distributed throughout everyday life • How its happening: mobile phones, GPS, RFID, databases, smart dust, sensors
    77. 77. Where to go next… QUESTIONS? Tags and Equipment Library Protocols Library RFID Standards US Data Model RFID Concerns Cost Benefit and ROI Other Considerations
    78. 78. COST-BENEFIT AND ROI
    79. 79. Benefits and ROI • All libraries report being better able to manage more work with the same number of people • Lots of potential benefits • RFID rarely implemented without making bigger commitment to self- service – self check-out – self check-in and sorter (AMH) – central sorters
    80. 80. Potential Benefits • Higher self-check rates – easier to self check out and self check in – smart shelves that check in items and trigger holds – smart bookdrops • Better A-V handling – don’t need to visually inspect cases with one disc • Recover lost material – find mis-shelved, hidden items • More accurate catalog – Easy to look for anything other than “available for checkout” • Pull holds faster – look for items on pull list • Inventory more likely – inventory can be done in a fraction of the time it would take using barcodes • Ergonomic benefits for staff – check in 3-4 items at a time – slide items over reader – no handling of barcode scanner
    81. 81. What to Count? • Number of scans • FTE • Throughput • Turnaround time • Injuries • Self-Check Percentage • Number “claims returned” • Catalog accuracy • Found items  Materials handing Staff Per Shift
    82. 82. Pay Back Periods That Have Been Reported • One library reported each sorter saved one FTE, and RFID implementation saved another FTE • Another library reported payback was 2-3 years • Vendors have predicted payback in less than a year (with AMH)
    83. 83. Keys to Leveraging Benefits of RFID… • Decide on a service model – 70% self-check is very different from 99% self-check – Decide where and how staff will interact with patrons • Remodel spaces to support service model • Make sure you have staff support – They must believe that RFID and self-service as a benefit for staff AND patrons – Patrons will need support and training during transition • Support new workflows with appropriate furniture and signage • Make it fun and exciting! – Work with the kids – Keep sorters visible (think about that curb appeal)
    84. 84. Where to go next… QUESTIONS? Tags and Equipment Library Protocols Library RFID Standards US Data Model RFID Concerns Cost Benefit and ROI Other Considerations
    85. 85. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
    86. 86. Procurement Issues • Insist on ISO 28560-2 compliance • Demo the system with a live connection to your ILS • Don’t mix in an AMH procurement with your RFID procurement – one procurement for RFID tags, security gates, and staff workstations – one for self-checks, automated check-ins and sorters • Start procurement process at least a year before you want to go live (if not 2 or more) • If you are thinking about changing your ILS, do that first (and include RFID considerations in THAT procurement) – e.g. costs for SIP interfaces and APIs • If you are in a consortium, coordinate with them
    87. 87. RFID and Consortia • Could use ILL fields to support sorting of items being shared • Be sure everyone is using correct AFI codes so that items can be secured and unsecured during resource-sharing • Media handling must be coordinated so that media can be secured and unsecured during resource-sharing (and so that labor-intensive workarounds aren’t required) • Password protection of certain fields a possibility with certain tags (outside of standard) but this needs to be coordinated with resource-sharing partners • Not necessary for everyone in a consortium to use the exact same elements (e.g. “data profile) as long as everyone follows ISO 28560- 2 standard
    88. 88. Complicating Issues 1. NFC technology on phones creating security concerns 2. UHF RFID technology emerging as contender. Is it a better fit than HF?
    89. 89. Near Field Communition (NFC) is an HF RFID Technology • Same underlying technology as library RFID tags • Smartphones with NFC reader: Google Nexus, Motorola Droid Razr, HTC Droid, LG, Samsung Galaxy and many more • iPhone 5 may have it • Primary use is for making payments
    90. 90. Potential Threat for Libraries with NFC-enabled Smartphones • An app exists that works with Android smartphones that can read, write and lock key areas of a ISO 15693 tag • Demonstrates a potential threat for libraries • NFC-enabled smart phones could render RFID based security systems ineffective and data on tags could be modified or corrupted • None of the “remediations” are desirable – Password protection – Using EAS instead of AFI for security – Going back to database look- up • Libraries will have to balance (again) value of interoperability against costs of a solution and the likelihood of the threat
    91. 91. Complicating Issue #2: HF vs UHF • All but two libraries in the US use HF RFID tags • US Standard is based on HF, UHF more broadly used in Asia and Australia. • UHF (as a technology) has been focus of most development in recent years
    92. 92. What if we switched to UHF instead of HF? • All the libraries currently using HF would have to replace/upgrade all of their equipment and tags (eventually) • Would create opportunities for new, better products: inventory, detection, acquisitions – anything that requires bulk reading of tags • Would create challenges for security, identification, circulation – anything that requires item-level reading of tags • Might help with the NFC issue (since NFC is an HF technology)
    93. 93. Maybe, if libraries used UHF tags……
    94. 94. What if libraries used either HF or UHF? • If we end up with some libraries using HF and some using UHF but all on the same data model…. – Would make software development easier (same data elements) – Would require two readers (UHF and HF) to be interoperable • If we end up without a consistent data model….all hopes for interoperability at any level is lost
    95. 95. What’s the Future Holds for Library RFID? • Libraries stay on HF and move to ISO 28560-2 – True vendor interoperability – Opportunities to expand the ways libraries use RFID go beyond basic circulation and security – ILS vendors start providing modules that use RFID • Libraries end up using both HF and UHF tags – Vendor lock-in returns as a problem – Development stalls • UHF emerges as preferred library tag – All of the above
    96. 96. So What’s a Library Considering RFID to Do? • Make sure you know what you want to accomplish with RFID – what problem are you trying to solve? This will drive your choices going forward • Work with a well-established vendor for tags and equipment • Buy ISO 28560-2 compliant tags that support password protection (just in case) • Make sure the ILS/RFID staff interface is acceptable and you know all the costs on ILS side • Don’t lock or password protect any data on the tags (keep your options open for now) • Push your vendors to participate in NCIP Standing Committee and develop true RFID solutions
    97. 97. Contact me anytime! Lori Bowen Ayre lori.ayre@galecia.com (707) 763-6869 More resources on my website: www.galecia.com Copyright © 2013 by Lori Bowen Ayre. This work is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike – NonCommercial – Attribution http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US

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