Most library RFID operates at 13.56MHz (usually called ‘HF’) but some in Asia and Australia have opted for UHF – which doesn’t do self-service well and doesn’t support a data model. Smart cards use a different frequency again.
The basic operation. Note that the LMS stays in control of all decision making – different ways to send data
Presentation to Konferencja Biblioteki PL
"Beyond the barcode. How RFID is changing library management"Library RFID Mick Fortune Library RFID Limited
Who is Mick Fortune? • 30+ years in library automation • Library adviser on RFID – Expert Member British Standards Institute, ISO • Co-founder of IFLA Special Interest Group • Chair of UK Library RFID standards committee:Library RFID – Members include: 3M, Bibliotheca, Axiell, SirsiDynix, Capita… • Blogs at www.mickfortune.com/Wordpress
Agenda • Quick overview of the technology • How libraries use it • Some things to consider • Questions?Library RFID
What exactly is RFID? Radio Frequency IDentification • Uses radio to access data stored on ‘chips’ over distance. • Read/Write • Chips are attached to “form factors” (whichLibrary RFID may be a label, a card - or even a person) • Libraries usually call them “tags”
Uses many different frequencies…Band LF HF UHF MicrowaveFrequency 30–300kHz 3–30MHz 300 MHz–3GHz 2–30 GHzTypical RFID 125–134 13.56 MHz 433 MHz or 865 – 956MHz 2.45 GHz 2.45 GHzFrequencies kHzApproximate less than 0.5 433 MHz = up to 100 metres 865- Up to 1.5 metres Up to 10mread range metre 956 MHz = 0.5 to 5 metres less than 1Typical data kilobit per 433–956 = 30 kbit/s 2.45 =100 Approximately 25 kbit/s Up to 100 kbit/stransfer rate second kbit/s Library RFID (kbit/s) Short-range, low data Higher ranges, reasonable Long range, high data transfer Long ranges, high data transfer rate, data rate (similar to GSM transfer rate, cannotCharacteristics rate, concurrent read of <100 items, phone), penetrates water penetrate water or penetrates cannot penetrate water or metals but not metal. metal water but not metal.
…to manage very different things • Road Tolls • Travelcards • Drug security • PassportsLibrary RFID • Even cats
Typical Library Tag Structure “Chip” AerialLibrary RFID “Form factor”
Different tags for different mediaLibrary RFID
Comparing barcodes with RFID • Barcode – Used only for identification (within a single library) – Processes items one at a time – Mostly for circulation • RFIDLibrary RFID – Used in national inter-lending schemes – Combines security and circulation (and more) – Multiple item processing – Can carry many pieces of information – Used for many library operations
Building a library RFID application is different • Most non-library RFID solutions are “stand alone” – Designed to solve a particular problem or deliver a specific service • However most library solutions connect toLibrary RFID another application. – Example: an LMS/ILS
A typical RFID application: Self Service Processes rules Sends data to Reads data LMS from items Library ManagemLibrary RFID ent Sends data to Clears System device RFID security Library (LMS) Management RFID Device(s) Item(s) System (LMS)
But things are changing… rapidly • New ways to connect LMS/RFID – SIP 3.0/NCIP • Was 3M, now NISO – BLCF • UK initiative – interest in USA • New data standards (published 2011)Library RFID – More ‘open’ market – Greater competition – Faster development – new applications
Think about… • Integrate or stand alone? • Choosing your radio frequency • Using data standards? •Library RFID Interoperability
Advantages of integration • Greater consistency of rules and policies • Access to existing database and applications • Easier to maintain of database integrity • Staff mediation if system failsLibrary RFID
Choosing your radio frequency • UHF – Long range characteristic is both good and bad – Currently does not support data standards – Cheaper tagsLibrary RFID • HF – Most popular with libraries worldwide – Supports data standards – Greater precision
Advantages of using data standards • National data models have been agreed for many countries – most are based on ISO 28560 • Guarantees future transferability of solutions between providersLibrary RFID • Allows you to take advantage of new developments, and to use different applications and hardware from different suppliers
Interoperability • To work with other RFID solutions you will need to know: – What standards are being used for data storage/radio communications/integration? – What data model is being used (is it national/proprietary)?Library RFID • To work with other library applications you will need to consider – How data is transferred? (communications protocols) – What information is being used? (data protocols)
Summary • RFID is a relatively simple technology with some relatively complex issues • Recent changes have helped reduce risks and maximise opportunities • Don’t consider RFID in isolation – need toLibrary RFID think about integration/interoperability – the big picture! • Help is available!
Thank you! - Questions?Library RFID Library RFID Ltd e. email@example.com w. www.libraryrfid.co.uk @libraryrfid