RFID: a condensed overview

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A very short overview of RFID and NFC.

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RFID: a condensed overview

  1. 1. RFID: A condensed overview Prof. Maarten Weyn 19/02/2016
  2. 2. RFID: A Condensed Overview Radio Frequency Identification
  3. 3. What is RFID? Radio Frequency Identification • A system consisting a tag, antenna and a processor capable of wirelessly communication data over radio waves
  4. 4. History Source: Wolfgang Kratzenberg
  5. 5. RFID - Basics Superior capabilities to barcode: • Non Line of Sight • Hi-speed, multiple reads • Can read and write to tags • Unit specific ID
  6. 6. RFID - Basics
  7. 7. Classification • Passive tags • Transponder’s energy is supplied by the reader through the EM signal • € 0.10 – 10 • Low data capacity (128 bits - 32kb) • Limited rage • Long Life • Semi-passive tags • The readers supplies only the energy that the transponder needs for its communication, the remaining part of the transponder have their own energy supply • Active • Both, reader and transponder have their own energy supply • €10 - 100 • Long Range (up to 300 m) • Limited life (few months, few years)
  8. 8. Classification – Communication method • Capacitive coupling A high-frequency electrical field is used to transfer energy and data • Inductive coupling A high-frequency magnetic field is used to transfer energy and data • Backscatter Electromagnetic waves are used to transmit energy and data to the transponders; backscattering (cf. radar technology: reflection of energy by the transponder) is used to transmit responses to the reader
  9. 9. Classification: Distance • Close coupling: ~1 centimeter  capacitive and inductive coupling, freq, ≤ 30 MHz • Remote coupling: up to 1 meter  inductive coupling, ~135 kHz, 13.56 Mhz, 27.12 MHz • Long-range: more then 1 meter  backscatter: ~900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz
  10. 10. Frequencies LF (125 – 134 kHz) HF (13.56 MHz) UHF 433-434 MHz 868-870 MHz 902-928 MHz UHF – μW (2.4 GHz)
  11. 11. Frequencies Frequency Read Range (Passive tag) [m] Data transfer rate [Kbits/sec] Environmental sensitivity (metal & water) Directional 125-134 kHz (LF) Induction < 1 2 - 4 Low Not 13.56 MHz (HF) Induction < 1.5 10 - 20 Limited Hardly 868 – 870 MHz 902 – 928 MHz (UHF) Backscatter 2 – 4 20 – 150 High More 2.45 GHz (UHF – μW) Backscatter ± 1  100 High Very
  12. 12. Tags Reusable RF Tags Disposable RF Tags
  13. 13. RFID vs Barcode • Low cost • Broad Utilization • Human Readable • Integrated in printed material • Data transfer requires line of sight • Data storage is limited • Environmentally sensitive • No line of sight • Large memory – data moves with product / asset • Dynamic data reads • Higher costs • Read sensitive to product attributes (metal, H2O) • Limited adoption
  14. 14. Flexible Manufacturing Environment
  15. 15. Process Control
  16. 16. Data Lineage • Tracing all components to their source • Critical for: – Recall information – Liability claims – Regulatory compliance
  17. 17. Tracking Options RFID Tag on Pallet RFID Tag on Part
  18. 18. Tracking Options • Asset Tracking • Reduce non-productivity times and asset losses • Asset’s ID, location, condition, availability, …
  19. 19. E-Kanban: Automated Replenishment • Reduce levels of in-process inventory • Tight control of inventory levels • Just-In-Time inventory flow
  20. 20. Talbot House BELIGUM
  21. 21. IoT Internet of Things
  22. 22. Wat is IoT? “The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects, devices, vehicles, buildings and other items which are embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data.” --"Internet of Things Global Standards Initiative - ITU“
  23. 23. NFC Near Field Communication
  24. 24. NFC
  25. 25. RFID to Near Field Communication • NFC was developed in 2002 • By NXP Semiconductors and Sony • NFC is based on the proprietary contactless smartcard systems • NXP Mifare (ISO/IEC 14443 Type A) • Sony FeliCa • NFC is compatible to proximity coupling systems • Vicinity coupling system may co-exist using the same RF but are not part of the NFC technology) • NFC is compatible to existing contactless smartcard infrastructure • Payment, ticketing & access control systems • Integration of contactless payment, ticket & access control into mobile phone
  26. 26. Near Field Communication • Contactless communication technology • Distance up to 10 centimeters • Carrier Freq. : 13.56 MHz • Interface standardized in ECMA and ISO/IEC • ECMA-340 = ISO/IEC 18092 = NFC Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1) • ECMA-352 = ISO/IEC 21481 = NFC Interface and Protocol-2 (NFCIP-2) • Further standards for • Interface & protocol test methods • NFC over a wired interface • Secured communication over NFC • Why standardized in both ECMA & ISO? • Standardized in process in ECMA (industry driven) is fast • Adoption of ECMA standards by ISO is fast  Shorter standardization process
  27. 27. Touch a Go Philosophy • Touching an object or NFC device automatically triggers an action • Technology should disappear for the user • Interaction should be • Reliable • Simple • Instant • Effective
  28. 28. Operating Modes of NFC Devices • Peer-to-Peer mode • Bidirectional connection to exchange data between two devices • Reader/Writer mode • NFC device acts as Proximity Coupling Device • NFC device can read & write contactless smartcards / NFC tags • Card Emulation mode • NFC device acts as a proximity integrated circuit cards • NFC device imitates a contactless smartcard
  29. 29. Thank you! maarten.weyn@uantwerpen.be +32 496 50 31 67 @maartenweyn

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