Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Protein metabolism disorders

14,847 views

Published on

Inborn Errors of Metabolism

  • Do This Simple 2-Minute Ritual To Loss 1 Pound Of Belly Fat Every 72 Hours ★★★ http://ishbv.com/bkfitness3/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • How can I improve my memory and concentration? How can I improve my memory for studying?★★★ https://bit.ly/2GEWG9T
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Can You Spare 1 Minute Per Day? If you have a few spare minutes per day, we have some very exciting news for you!  http://ishbv.com/1minweight/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I recovered from bulimia. You can too! learn more... ●●● http://scamcb.com/bulimiarec/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • ♣♣ 10 Easy Ways to Improve Your Performance in Bed... ♥♥♥ http://ishbv.com/rockhardx/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Protein metabolism disorders

  1. 1. Nutrition Support for Inborn Errors of Protein Metabolism Dr. Sheetal Mhamunkar Preventa Clinic Clinical Dietician & Consultant Sports Nutritionist Mumbai
  2. 2. Protein Disorders • IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietary) or endogenous protein Amino Acid Organic Aciduria Urea Cycle Defect
  3. 3. Treatment Plan • Reduce formation, enhance excretion, maintain biochemical balance of toxic metabolites • Provide adequate nutrition for proper growth & development • Supportive care e.g. treatment of infection • Support for social & emotional development • Reduction of dietary protein/amino acid remains a mainstay of treatment. Restriction may require for longer duration/lifetime in some case • Typical formula supplementation will be helpful in providing major portion of protein, energy & other important vitamins & minerals
  4. 4. Amino acid disorders • Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders are characterized by the inability to metabolize a certain essential amino acid. • The build-up of the amino acid that is not metabolized can be toxic. • Treatment of amino acid disorders involves restricting one or more essential amino acids to the minimum required for growth and development • Supplying the missing product due to the blocked reaction.
  5. 5. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders • Phenylketonuria (PKU) (includes clinically significant hyperphenylalaninemia variants • Maple Syrup Urine Disorder (MSUD) • Homocystinuria • Tyrosinemia
  6. 6. Phenylketonuria • Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is an inherited disorder that increases the levels of a substance called phenylalanine in the blood. • Phenylalanine is a building block of proteins (an amino acid) that is obtained through the diet. • It is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners. • If PKU is not treated, phenylalanine can build up to harmful levels in the body, causing intellectual disability and other serious health problems.
  7. 7. Goals of Nutrition Support: PKU • Maintain 2-4 hours postprandial plasma PHE & TYR levels within accepted range • Support normal growth & development & maintain appropriate weight • Maintain normal nutrition status • Prevent catabolism • Prevent behavioral abnormalities • Prevent EEG changes & neurological deterioration in adults • Support normal & appropriate wt gain based on ht, pre-pregnancy weight & gestational age
  8. 8. Nutrient Requirement • Protein: requirements are greater than RDA when L-amino acids supply measure protein • Prescribe PHE intake that promotes goals of nutrition • Depends on age, growth rate, adequacy of energy & protein intakes • Maternal PKU: age, weight gain, trimester of pregnancy, adequacy of energy & protein intake & state of health
  9. 9. Blood PHE Levels Age yrs UK Germany France US Infant to 10 120 – 360 40 – 240 120 -360 120 – 360 10 -12 < 480 < 600 < 900 120 – 360 12 -20 < 480 < 600 < 900 120 – 600 > 20 < 700 < 1200 < 900 120 – 900 pregnancy 120 - 360
  10. 10. RDA for Infants With PKU Age PHE mg/kg TYR mg/kg Protein g/kg Calories /kg Fluid ml/kg 0 to < 3mo 25 – 70 300 – 350 3.5 – 3.0 120 (145 95) 160 – 135 3 to< 6 mo 20 – 45 300 – 350 3.5 – 3.0 120 (145 95) 160 – 130 6 to < 9 mo 15 – 35 250 – 300 3.0 – 2.5 110 (135 80) 145 -125 9 to <12 mo 10 – 35 250 – 300 3.0 – 2.5 110 (135 – 80) 135 -120
  11. 11. RDA For Children With PKU (boys & girls) Age yrs PHE mg/d TYR g/d Pro g/d Cals/d Fluid ml/d 1 to <4 200-400 1.72 – 3 > 30 1300 (900 900 – – 1800) 1800 4 to <7 210 -450 2.25 – 3.5 > 35 1700 (1300 – 2300) 1300 – 2300 7 to <11 220 - 500 2.55 - 4 > 40 2400 (1650 – 3300) 1650 – 3300
  12. 12. Requirement for Pregnant Women with PKU Trimester & age (yrs) PHE mg/d TYR g/d Protein g/d Energy /d 1st trimester 15 to <19  19 200 -600 200 -600 5.75 – 7.5 4.5 – 7.0  75  70 2,500 (2000 – 3500) 2,500 (2000 – 3500) 2nd trimester 15 to <19  19 200 -600 200 -600 5.75 – 7.5 4.5 – 7.0  75  70 2,500 (2000 – 3500) 2,500 (2000 – 3500) 3rd trimester 15 to <19  19 200 -600 200 -600 5.75 – 7.5 4.5 – 7.0  75  70 2,500 (2000 – 3500) 2,500 (2000 – 3500)
  13. 13. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) • MSUD is a group of inherited disorders ILE, LEU & VAL metabolism resulting from several mutations • Some are mild and some are severe • The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odor of affected infants' urine
  14. 14. Nutrition Support Goals: Acute Illness or at Diagnosis MSUD • Don’t wait for conformation of , start therapy at the earliest. • Without severe neurologic involvement Begin high energy feeds; special formulas as early as possible • Comatose patients Begin TPN or nasogastric feeding of BCAA free & energy within 36 to 48 hrs of initiation of dialysis
  15. 15. Long-term Support MSUD • ILE, LEU & VAL requirement vary widely from pt to pt depending on activity branched-chain-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) • Initiate therapy with lowest values • Changing requirements based on monitoring • Like PKU protein requirements are higher • During metabolic acidosis energy needs may be 25% to 40% higher than normal
  16. 16. Nutrient Requirements For Infants & Children With MSUD Age months ILE mg/kg LEU mg/kg VAL mg/kg Pro. g/kg Cals /d 0 to <3 30 – 60 60 – 100 42 – 70 3.5 to 3 120 (145 – 95) 3 to <6 30 – 50 50 – 85 35 – 60 3.5 to 3 115 (145 – 95) 6 to <9 25 – 40 40 – 70 28 – 50 3 to 2.5 110 (135 - 80) 9 to <12 18 – 33 30 – 55 21 – 38 3 to 2.5 105 (135 – 80) Boys & Girls age Yrs ILE mg/d LEU mg/d VAL mg/d Protein g/kg Cals /d 1 to <4 165 – 325 275 – 535 190 – 400 > 30 1300 (900 – 1800) 4 to <7 215 – 420 360 – 695 250 – 490 > 35 1700 (1300 – 2300) 7 to <11 245 470 410 - 785 285 – 550 > 40 2400 (1650 – 3300)
  17. 17. Homocystinuria • A disorder of methionine metabolism, leading to an abnormal accumulation of homocysteine and its metabolites in blood and urine. • Homocystinuria is an autosomal recessively inherited defect in the transsulfuration pathway (homocystinuria I) or methylation pathway (homocystinuria II and III)
  18. 18. Treatment for Homocystinuria • Correct primary imbalance in metabolic relationship • Supply product of blocked primary pathway • Protein & energy similar to PKU • 3g Betaine 2 to 3 times a day with meals help in significant decline in serum homocystine concentration
  19. 19. • Daily supplement of folate 500 to 1000 g may be required • MET 10 to 30 mg/kg for infants; 8 to 12 mg/kg for children 1 to < 11 yrs; 4 to 14 mg/kg for women & 6 to 16 mg/kg for men above 11 yrs • Cystine 200 to 300 mg/kg for infants; 100 to 200 mg/kg for children 1 to < 11 yrs; 25 to 150 mg/kg for women & 25 to 150 mg/kg for men above 11 yrs
  20. 20. Tyrosinemia • Elevated blood tyrosine levels are associated with several clinical entities. The term tyrosinemia was first given to a clinical entity based on observations that have proven to be common to various disorders. Types includes • Transient tyrosinemia of the newborn (TTN) • Tyrosinemia Ia & 1b • Tyrosinemia II • Tyrosinemia III
  21. 21. Treatment for Tyrosinemia • Restrict dietary PHE & TYR to amounts tolerated for maintaining plasma concentration • Maintain plasma bicarbonate, phosphate, K+ • Maintain normal liver & kidney function • In case of elevated serum ammonia, protein intake may need to be restricted until ammonia levels return to normal range • PHE plus TYR 40 to 155 mg/kg for infants; 380 to 1000 mg/d for children 1 to < 11 yrs; 800 to 1200 mg/d for women & 990 to 1500 mg/d for men above 11 yrs for type 1a & type 1b
  22. 22. • PHE & TYR 20 to 90 mg/kg for infants; 250 to 600 mg/d of PHE & 200 to 550 mg/d TYR for children 1 to < 11 yrs; 270 to 700 mg/d of PHE & 260 to 500 mg/d of TYR for women & 275 to 750 mg/d of PHE & 260 to 550 mg/d of TYR for men above 11 yrs for type II & III • Protein & energy same as PKU for type II & type III
  23. 23. Organic Acid Disorders • Disorders are characterized by the excretion of non-amino organic acids in the urine. • Most of the disorders are caused by a deficient enzyme involving the catabolism of specific amino acid(s). • As a result, the non-metabolized substance accumulates due to the blockage of the specific metabolic pathway, which is toxic to certain organs and may also cause damage to the brain
  24. 24. Organic Acid Disorders • • • • • • • • • Isovaleric Acidemia 3 methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency Glutaric Acidemia type I Glutaric Acidemia type II 3 hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A lyase deficiency Multiple carboxylase deficiency Methylmalonic Acidemia Propionic Acidemia Beta-ketothiolase deficiency
  25. 25. Isovaleric Acidemia • People with isovaleric acidemia have inadequate levels of an enzyme that helps break down a particular amino acid called leucine. • Health problems range from very mild to life-threatening. • In severe cases, the features of isovaleric acidemia become apparent within a few days after birth. • In these children, episodes of more serious health problems can be triggered by prolonged periods without food (fasting), infections, or eating an increased amount of protein-rich foods. • LEU 50 to 150 mg/kg for infants; 500 to 900 mg/d for children 1 to < 11 yrs; 620 to 900 mg/d for women & 1000 to 1500 mg/d for men above 11 yrs • Protein & energy same as PKU
  26. 26. Glutaric Aciduria • Type I or 2-ketoadipic Aciduria – defect in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GDH) • Initiate nutrition support immediately • Restrict dietary lysine & tryptophan to amounts of tolerated to maintain plasma concentrations • Trial of pharmacologic oral riboflavin if any GDH activity is present • Early identification, appropriate medical & nutrition management in pts treated prior to initial neurologic crises near normal development in most cases
  27. 27. • Glutaric Aciduria type II or Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency characterized by hypoketotic or nonketotic hypoglycemia & metabolic acidosis • Nutrition support with riboflavin, carnitine, & diets high in CHO, low in protein & low in fat • In milder or later onset disease has more success rate than early onset • Restrict intake of intact protein to  excess essential isoleucine (ILE), leucine (LEU), lysine (LYS), tryptophan (TRP) & Valine (VAL)
  28. 28. Goals of Nutrition Support • Maintain 2 to 4 hr postprandial plasma LYS & TRP levels in low normal range • Maintain plasma concentration of Glutaric acid • Support normal growth & development in infants & children; appropriate wt for ht in adults • Maintain normal nutrition status: avoid prolonged fasting • Maintain adequate hydration • Prevent catabolism & neurological deterioration • Maintain plasma free carnitine concentration
  29. 29. Nutritional Management • Protein: age; initially high; requirements may be greater when L-amino acids supply majority of protein due to rapid absorption; rapid catabolism; possible  total amino acid absorption • Energy: sufficient enough for wt gain • LYS & TRP: age; growth rate; adequacy of energy & protein • L-carnitine supplement • Riboflavin supplement • Restriction of TRP may require niacin supplement
  30. 30. Nutrient requirement Age LYS mg/kg TRP mg/kg Protein g Cals/kg/d 0 - <3 months 80-100 10-20 3.5 – 3.0 /kg/d 120 (145 – 95) 3 - < 6 months 70-90 10-15 3.5 – 3.0 /kg/d 115 (145 – 95) 6 < 9 months 60-80 10-12 3.0– 2.5 /kg/d 110 (135 – 80) 9 - < 12 months 50-70 10-12 3.0– 2.5 /kg/d 105 (135 - 80) 1 to <11 yrs >11 yrs W > 11 yrs M 35 - 65 10 -40 30 – 45 4 -12 3–6 3–6 > 30g/d 1300 (900-1800)/d
  31. 31. Methylmalonic Acidemia (MMA) & Propionic Acidemia (PA) • Disorders of essential ILE, MET, THR & VAL & odd chain fatty acid metabolism • Severe cases usually present within 1st days of life • Symptoms in later life are usually milder than early presenting pts & they may tolerate more intact protein than pts who present as neonates • Hypoglycemia & hyperammoninemia may be present
  32. 32. Treatment for MMA & PA • Oral biotin if PCC activity is present in PA • Intramuscular hydroxycobalamin if MMA activity is present in pts with MMA • Nutrition therapy for vitamin-nonresponsive forms of PA & MMA is the same • If blood ammonia is > 35 mol/l or greater than normal, decrease ILE, MET, THR and/or VAL from intact protein by 5% to 10% & re-evaluate in 3 days • Gradually  restricted amino acids as tolerated • +ve Urine ketoacid suggests catabolism from insufficient pro & energy intake & impending illness
  33. 33. Amino Acid Requirements for MMA & PA • Protein energy same as PKU Age ILE MET THR VAL 0 to <12 mo 40 – 120 mg/kg 10 - 50 mg/kg 20 – 135 mg/kg 30 - 105 mg/kg 1 to < 11 yrs 485 – 1090 mg/d 180 – 580 mg/d 415 – 885 mg/d 550 – 1225 mg/d > 11 yrs w 925 – 1470 mg/d 265 – 780 mg/d 790 – 1195 mg/d 790 – 1655 mg/d > 11 yrs m 540 – 1190 mg/d 290 – 950 mg/d 810 – 1455 mg/d 1080 – 2015 mg/d
  34. 34. Urea Cycle Disorders • Urea Cycle Disorders occur when any defect or total absence of any of the enzymes or the cofactors used in the urea cycle results in the accumulation of ammonia in the blood. • The urea cycle converts waste nitrogen into urea and excretes it from the kidneys. • Since there are no alternate pathways to clear the ammonia, dysfunction of the urea cycle results in neurologic damages. • Hyperammonemia is a biochemical manifestation of all disorders
  35. 35. Treatment • Restrict dietary protein to amt tolerated without causing hyperammonemia • Prevent excessive body protein catabolism • Restrict dietary TRP to that required for growth to prevent excess synthesis of serotonin & quinolinic acid • Prescribe L-ARG or L-CIT as indicated • Prescribe sodium benzoate, sodium phenylacetate or sodium phenylbutyrate to help decrease accumulated toxic precursors
  36. 36. • Amt of protein may need to be increased if these substances are prescribed daily • Use essential amino acid mix to supply  50% of prescribed protein • Prevent hyperlipdemia • Energy greater than RDA • Offer 1.5 ml fluid to neonates & 1 ml fluid to children & adults for each calorie ingested • Maintain records of food intake for 3 days before each blood test • Evaluate intakes of protein & energy before each blood test
  37. 37. Urea Cycle Disorders • Citrullinemia • Argininosuccinic aciduria • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency
  38. 38. Citrullinemia • Citrullinemia is urea cycle disorder that causes ammonia & other toxic substances to accumulate in the blood • Type I citrullinemia (also known as classic citrullinemia. Usually becomes evident in the first few days of life. Affected infants typically appear normal at birth, but as ammonia builds up in the body, they develop symptoms
  39. 39. • These medical problems can be life-threatening in many cases. A milder form of type I citrullinemia is less common in childhood or adulthood. Some people with gene mutations that cause type I citrullinemia never experience signs and symptoms of the disorder. • Type II citrullinemia usually appear during adulthood and mainly affect the central nervous system. The symptoms can be life-threatening, and are known to be triggered by certain medications, infections, and alcohol intake in people with this type.
  40. 40. Treatment for Citrullinemia • Immediately restrict dietary protein • Emphasize other non protein caloric sources to compensate. • Intravenous sodium benzoate, sodium phenylacetate, and arginine are important therapeutic avenues for reduction of blood ammonia levels. • In severe cases, hemodialysis may be indicated to rapidly reduce the blood ammonia level. • Long-term management requires close dietary monitoring and oral administration of sodium phenylbutyrate and arginine. • In some cases, liver transplant has been successful
  41. 41. Tips For Initiation Of Diet • If  in infancy, initially dietary amino acid requirements are met by small amounts of breast milk or infant formula • As feeding skills develop, requirements are met through small amounts of rice cereal and puréed fruits and vegetables. • During the toddler and early childhood years, the amino acid prescription can be met with low protein cereals, fruits & vegetables. • Increased needs of protein are difficult to meet through diet alone, hence may require larger amount of formula preparations
  42. 42. Expected Outcomes of Good Treatment • Blood parameters of toxic metabolites remain within accepted range • Adequate growth in height & weight • Normal intellectual development • Self management of food choice

×