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Chap 4 hardware & software


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Chap 4 hardware & software

  1. 1. Chap 4:Hardware & Software Discussion from a Business Managers Perspective
  2. 2. <ul><li>Hardware includes electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output, and store data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software. </li></ul>Five-Component Framework: Components of a Generic Computer
  3. 3. <ul><li>First step : CPU transfers a program or data from a storage disk to main memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Second step: CPU moves a program instruction from main memory into the CPU via the data channel , or bus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache memory , part of CPU, is very fast memory used to store frequently used instructions in order to speed up processing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main memory contains operating system (OS), a program that controls computer’s resources, and blocks data and instructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main memory too small to hold all the program code and data needed for processing, so operating system loads programs into memory in chunks. Then, uses memory swapping to move chunks of instructions and data in and out of main memory. </li></ul></ul>How Does a Computer Work?
  4. 4. <ul><li>Managers need to match computers to employee tasks and requirements to reduce employee frustration and improve productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Main memory size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees who process many programs (Word, Excel, Firefox, Access, Acrobat, and other programs) at same time, or process very large files (pictures, movies, or sound files) need lots of main memory, because too little memory will make the computer slow due to constant memory swapping. </li></ul></ul>Why Does a Manager Care How a Computer Works?
  5. 5. <ul><li>CPU speed ( hertz) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow personal computers have speed of 1.5 Gigahertz, fast ones have speed of 3+ Gigahertz, with dual processing (2009). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CPUs classified as 32-bit or 64-bit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64-bit CPU can address more main memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively utilize more than 4 GB of memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive than 32-bit processors. </li></ul></ul>Why Does a Manager Care How a Computer Works?
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Simple tasks, such as word processing, do not need fast CPU; a 32-bit, 1.5 Gigahertz CPU will be fine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee who processes large, complicated spreadsheets or manipulates large database files or edits large picture, sound, or movie files needs a fast computer like a 64-bit, dual processor with 3.5 Gigahertz or more. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache and main memory are volatile meaning their contents are lost when power is off. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic and optical disks are nonvolatile , meaning their contents survive when power is off. </li></ul></ul>Why Does a Manager Care How a Computer Works?
  7. 7. Computing Environment of the Typical User
  8. 8. <ul><li>Client computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers used by an individual for word processing, spreadsheets, database access, and so forth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most client computers have software that enables them to connect to a private network at work or school, or public Internet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide some service (such as email; serving pages on a Web site; processing large, shared databases; or other functions) to multiple users. </li></ul></ul>Clients and Servers
  9. 9. <ul><li>A typical server: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be fast and have multiple CPUs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need lots of main memory, at least 4GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require very large disks—often a terabyte or more. Because servers are almost always accessed from another computer via a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have limited video displays, or no display at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many have no keyboard </li></ul></ul>Clients and Servers
  10. 10. <ul><li>Server farm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organized collection of servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers in a farm coordinate their activities in a sophisticated and fascinating technology dance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They receive and process hundreds, possibly thousands, of service requests per minute. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In December 2005, processed an average of 41 order items per second for 24 hours straight. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm servers hand off partially processed requests to each other while keeping track of the current status of each request. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can pick up the pieces when a computer in the farm fails. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of this is done in the blink of an eye. </li></ul></ul>Clients and Servers
  11. 11. Thin Clients vs. Thick Clients Why would some organizations prefer thin clients over thick clients? Hmmm….
  12. 12. <ul><li>Grid computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A network of computers that operates as an integrated whole; the grid appears to be a single computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may support a server farm, or some other computing need. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations lease time on a grid from other organizations that create, support, and manage that grid. </li></ul></ul>Grids
  13. 13. <ul><li>Cloud computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to a computing network on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone have any examples that they are aware of that is Cloud computing? </li></ul></ul>Clouds Facebook!!! Our Class Bog page!!!
  14. 14. <ul><li>A particular version of an operating system is written for a particular type of hardware. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, Microsoft Windows works only on processors from Intel and companies that make processors that conform to the Intel instruction set (the commands that a CPU can process). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32-bit version of Windows run only on Intel computers with 32-bit CPUs and the 64-bit version of Windows runs only on Intel computers with 64-bit CPUs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux has different versions for different instructions sets and for both 32- and 64-bit computers. </li></ul></ul>Important Software Constraints
  15. 15. <ul><li>Application programs are written to use a particular operating system . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Access runs only on Windows operating systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some applications come in multiple versions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows and Macintosh versions of Microsoft Word. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unless informed otherwise, assume that a particular application runs on just one operating system. </li></ul></ul>Important Software Constraints
  16. 16. Windows <ul><li>Microsoft Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important operating system for business users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some version of Windows resides on more than 85 percent of world’s desktops, and 95 percent of business users’ computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different versions of Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Vista </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 7 (many versions…) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 & 2008 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Other types of O/S <ul><li>Macs—Apple </li></ul><ul><li>Unix– Open source—not as popular today with standard users </li></ul><ul><li>Linux—gaining in popularity around the world, free OS…. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs a service or function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are general purpose, such as Microsoft Excel or Word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others provide specific functions, such as QuickBooks which provides general ledger and other accounting functions </li></ul></ul>What Types of Applications Exist, and How Do Organizations Obtain Them?
  19. 19. What Categories of Application Programs Exist? <ul><li>Horizontal-market application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides capabilities common across all organizations and industries. Word processors, graphics programs, spreadsheets, and presentation programs are all horizontal-market application software. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint; Adobe Acrobat, Photoshop, and PageMaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in a wide variety of businesses, across all industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchased off-the-shelf, and little customization of features is necessary (or possible) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What Categories of Application Programs Exist? <ul><li>Vertical-market application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves needs of a specific industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programs used by dental offices to schedule appointments and bill patients; auto mechanics to keep track of customer data and customers’ automobile repairs; and programs used by parts warehouses to track inventory, purchases, and sales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>One-of-a-kind application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed for a specific, unique need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other types of software? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firmware : read-only instructions hard-coded into devices like printers, print-serves, (our smart-phones…) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Open-Source Software <ul><li>Examples include; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenOffice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox (browser) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MySQL (Database) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apache (web server) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu (O/S) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Android (mobile O/S) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a viable alternative? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolutely! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on circumstance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question really is about “is free better than paying for support? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Purchases you as a manager may be responsible for Category Hardware Software Client CPU speed Amount of main memory Size of HD CD or DVD type Monitor type and size <ul><li>O/S </li></ul><ul><li>Windows, Mac, Unix, or Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Application Software </li></ul><ul><li>Need for thick client or thin client </li></ul>Server Really not a responsibility of the business manager (Except for possibly budget role) Specify requirements for client/server applications Work w/ IT to test and accept software
  23. 23. What will Business managers have to do with Hardware and Software? <ul><li>Determine base requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of HW and SW will employees need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forecast Requirements during budget Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for changes in # of employees, workload, and mandatory changes in HW /SW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepare Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Assess Results </li></ul><ul><li>Document Results </li></ul>
  24. 24. You Decide <ul><li>Its important again then from a business perspective to understand your system requirements…… for example; </li></ul><ul><li>Users need computers that will allow then to work with word processing, accounting software, and have constant access to a customer database…. </li></ul><ul><li>They will also be communicating via MS Outlook with co-workers and business partners….. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>System Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>QuickBooks Enterprise requires at least 1.8 GHz processor and 512 MB RAM for a multiuser environment </li></ul><ul><li>MS Office requires at least 500 megahertz (MHz) processor or higher Memory 512 MB RAM </li></ul><ul><li>CRM is handled by the QuickBooks software….. </li></ul><ul><li>Outlook part of MS Office Suite…. </li></ul><ul><li>IS Dept offers these PC’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Pentium 4 Processor at 2.8 GHz with 533MHz Data Bus and 512K cache, 256MB RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Pentium 4 Processor at 2.8 GHz with 533MHz Data Bus and 512K cache, 512 MB RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Pentium 4 Processor at 3.6 GHz with 533MHz Data Bus and 1MB cache, 512 MB RAM </li></ul></ul></ul>