Chapter 1Notebook PCIntroductionThe electronic computer was first created as a calculating device designed to solve arithmeticproblems for scientists and mathematicians. Today it has become an indispensable tool, helping toshape the society it serves. The size of the computer system varies from small hand-held devices tohuge machines occupying several large rooms.When people use the terms personal computers and microcomputers, they mean the small computerthat are commonly found in offices, classroom, and homes. Personal computer comes in all shapes,and sizes. Although most models reside on desktops, other stand on the floor and some are evenportable. Weighing a little, notebook PC has become very popular.1.1 Computer Concepts: IPOS Cycle - The machine itself performs only four basic operations. a) Input: You use the keyboard or mouse to input data. b) Processing: The CPU with which the computer processes and store data. c) Output: You see the results (output) on the monitor and you can print these results on the printers. d) Storage: You can store information on the internal disc or on a removable disc. Storage is permanent. You must transfer the data and information to Storage (SAVE) before you quit, if you want to keep the information permanently.1.2 Computing Process: The computer processes data into information.The computing process includes everything necessary for the computer to accomplish this task. Thecomputer’s processor uses memory as workspace. Memory is temporary. When you turn off thecomputer without saving, everything in the memory is lost.1.3 Elements of the computing process: In the computing process, computer integrates the use offive key elements – a) Hardware – The physical part of the computer. b) Software – The programs that tells the computer what to do. c) Data – The data is the input to processing. d) People – You (user) and computer professionals e) Procedure – Procedures are the steps that you must follow to accomplish a specific computer- related task.Knowledge of common procedure is a part of a user’s computer literacy. Chances are, you alreadyknow several computer procedures. For example, you have probably used an automated teller machine(ATM). Inside the ATM is a computer. In response to on-screen message called prompts, you insertyour card, enter your personal identification number (PIN), and tell the machine how much money youwant. In this write-up, you will become familiar with many more computer procedures.
Chapter 2Managing operations of a PCThe computer is devoid of any original thinking. It does nothing, what it is not told to do. When youfirst start your system, it has no idea how to load operating systems. To solve this problem, it has abasic Input/Output system (BIOS) that looks for as soon as you turn it on. BIOS are programs that areusually stored on the Flesh memory on the motherboard.2.1 Basic Input/Output System (BIOS): The BIOS software have a number of different roles, First ofall BIOS check stored information on CMOS and display text describing things like the memoryinstalled, the type of hard disc and so on. The BIOS use this information to modify or supplement itsdefault programming as needed.After applying power-on self-test (POST), if the BIOS find any error during the POST, it will notifyyou by a series of beeps or a text message displayed on the screen. An error at this point is almost ahardware problem.The BIOS then display some details about your system. This typically includes information aboutprocessor, floppy drive and hard drive, memory, BIOS revision and date, display etc.If any special drivers are loaded from the adaptor, the BIOS display the information. The BIOS thenlook at the sequence of storage devices identified as boot devices in the CMOS setup. “BOOT” refersto process of launching the operating system. If it does not find the proper files on a device, the startupprocess will halt.We have seen that BIOS software has a number of different roles, but the most important role is toload the operating system.2.2 Operating systems: Operating systems are the most important programs that run on thecomputer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs.2.3 Utilities: Utility is a program that performs a very specific task, usually related to managingsystem resources. Operating systems contain a number of utilities for managing disc drives, printers,and other devices.Utilities differ from applications mostly in terms of size and complexity. For example, wordprocessors, spreadsheet programs, and database applications are considered applications because theyare large programs that perform a variety of functions not directly related to managing computerresources.2.4 Compliers and Interpreters: Complier is a program that translates source code into object code.The complier derives its name from the way it works, looking at the entire piece of source code andcollecting and reorganizing the instructions.A compiler differs from interpreter, which analyzes and executes each line of source code insuccessions, without looking at the entire program. The advantage of interpreters is that they canexecute a program immediately. Compilers require some time before an executable program emerges.However, programs produced by the compilers run much faster than the same programs executed byinterpreters.
2.5 Word Processors: A word processor is a program that enables you to perform word processingfunctions. Of all computer applications, word processors are the most common.A word processor enables you to create a document, store it electronically on a disk, display it on ascreen, modify it by entering commands and characters from the keyboard, and print it on a printer.The great advantage of word processing over using a typewriter is that you can make changes withoutretyping the entire document. If you make a typing mistake, you simply take back the cursor andcorrect your mistake. If you want to delete a paragraph, you simply remove it, without leaving a trace.It is equally easy to insert a word, sentence, or paragraph in the middle of a document. Word processoralso makes it easy to move sections of text from one page to another within a document, or betweendocuments. When you have made all the changes you want, you can send the file to a printer to get ahardcopy. Some of the commonly used word processors are Microsoft Word, WordStar, WordPerfect,AmiPro, etc.2.6 Spreadsheets: A spreadsheet is a table of values arranged in rows and columns. Each value canhave a predefined relationship to the other values.Spreadsheet applications are computer programs that let you create and manipulate spreadsheetselectronically. In a spreadsheet application, each value sits in a cell. You can define what type of datain each cell and how different cells depend on one another. The relationships between cells are calledformulas, and the names of the cells are called levels. Once you have defined the cells and theformulas – for linking them together, you can enter your data.There are number of spreadsheet applications in the market, Lotus 1-2-3 and Excel being among themost famous. These applications support graphic features that enable you to produce charts and graphsfrom the data.Some spreadsheets are multidimensional, meaning that you can link one spreadsheet to another. Athree-dimensional spreadsheet, for examples, is like a stack of spreadsheets all connected by formulae.A change made in one spreadsheet automatically affects other spreadsheets.2.7 Presentation Graphics: Presentation Graphics enables users to create highly stylized images forslide shows and reports.The software includes functions for creating various types of charts and graphs and for inserting textin a variety of fonts. Most systems enable you to import data from a spreadsheets application to createthe charts and graphs.Presentation graphics is often called business graphics. Some of the popular presentation graphicssoftware is Microsoft PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance, Graphics, Hardware Presentation Graphics, etc.2.8 Database Management Systems (DBMS): A DBMS is a collection of programs that enables youto store, modify, and extract information from a database.There are many different types of DBMS ranging from small systems that run on personal computersto huge systems that run on mainframes.The following are some examples of database applications – computerized library systems, automatedteller machines, flight and railway reservation systems, etc.Requests for information from a database are made in the form of a query, which is stylized question.Different DBMS support different query languages, although there is a semi-standardized query
language called SQL (structured query languages). Sophisticated languages for managing databasesystems are called fourth-generation languages, or in short 4GLs.The information from a database can be presented in a variety of formats. Most DBMS include areport writer program that enables you to output data in the form of a report. Many DBMS alsoinclude a graphic component that enables you to output information in the form of graphs and charts.Some examples of database management systems are IDMS, IMS, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Ingress,MS-SQL, Server, MS Access, etc.2.9 Image Processors: Image processors or graphic processors enable you to create, edit,manipulate, add special effects, view, and print and save images.2.10 Paint Programs: A paint program is a graphical program that enables you to draw pictures onthe display screen, which is represented as a bit maps.Most paint programs provide the tools in the form of icons. By selecting an icon, you may performfunctions associated with the tools.In addition to these tools, paint programs also provide easy way to draw common shape such asstraight lines, rectangles, circles and ovals.2.11 Draw Programs: A draw program is another graphic program that enables you to draw pictures,then store the images in files, merge them into documents, and print them.Unlike paint programs, which represent images as a bit maps, draw program use vector graphics,which makes it easy to scale images to different sizes. In addition, graphics produced with a drawprogram have no inherent resolution. Rather, they can be represented at any resolution, which makesthem ideal for high-resolution output.2.12 Image Editor: Image editor is a graphics program that provides a variety of special features foraltering bit-mapped images. The difference between image editors and paint programs is not always clear-cut, but in generalimage editors are specialized for modifying bit-mapped images, such as scanned photographs, whereaspaint programs are specialized for creating images. In addition to offering a host of filters and image transformation algorithms, image editor also enablesyou to create and super impose layers.
Chapter 3Operating SystemsOperating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called applicationsprograms can run.Your choice of operating system therefore, determines to a great extent the applications you can run.The primary purpose of an operating system is to maximize the productivity of a computer system byoperating it in a most efficient manner. An operating system performs basic tasks, such as – a) Recognizing input from the keyboard, b) Managing functions performed by the hardware, c) Sending output to the display screen, d) Keeping track of files and directories on the disc, e) Controlling peripheral devices such as printers, secondary storage devices, and communication and network equipments.The operating system software must – a) Keep track of each hardware resource, b) Determine who gets what, c) Determine when the user will have access to the resource, d) Allocate how much of the resource the user will be given, and e) Terminate access at the end of the use period.Many operating systems are designed as a collection of program modules around a central module, orkernal. For example, some operating system packages include a selected number of utility programs,language translator program and even some application programs.3.1 MS-DOS: Microsoft developed the operating system referred to as MS-DOS for the first IBMpersonal computer. The initial version DOS 1.0 was released in August 1981.By the time it was replaced by Window 95, MSDOS had gone through six major revisions. It’snumerous commands and features are still available to Window users.DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and RENAME for copying files andchanging the names of files, respectively.Computer literates used computers in early days. Users are expected to remember commands and itsmeaning. Later on the use of personal computers widely spread over. The human computer interfacewas a problem area in using computers.Attempts were made to replace commands by graphics. The interface, which replaced crypticcommands by their graphical presentation, is called “ Graphical User Interface” (GUI).Xerox Corporation developed the first GUI for their Xerox star computers. Apple computers in theirMacintosh personal computers used this interface. It was a hit among users.Microsoft developed GUI’s called MS-Windows, for IBM personal computers.
3.2 Window 98: Microsoft 98 is the upgraded version of window operating system. It is a single usermultitasking operating system. Navigating around your computer is easier in window 98.You can open a file by single click. You can use multiple monitor screens with a single computer.Thus you can increase the size of your workspace.Window 98 supports the universal serial bus (USB) standard, allowing you to plug in new hardwareand use it immediately without restarting the computer. With Window 98, we can use digital camerasand other digital imaging devices.Windows and programs open faster than ever before. By using maintenance wizard, the computerspeed and efficiency can be improved. You can use FAT 32 file system to store files more efficientlyand save hard disc space.Using the World Wide Web is easier and faster. The connection to Web is simple. Web pages can beviewed in any window. You can make favorite Web pages. In Microsoft Outlook express, you cansend e-mail and post messages to Internet newsgroup. The conferences on Internet can be arranged.Window 98 supports DVD and digital audio. You can play high quality digital movies and audio onthe computers. The television broadcast can also be observed on computer.
Chapter 4Miscellaneous utilitiesUtility is a program that performs a very specific task, usually related to managing system resources.Operating system contains a number of utilities for managing disk drives, printers, and other devices.4.1 Anti Virus Packages (Scanner): Scanners are software programs that look through code ofstrings (byte sequences) that match known strings in known viruses, and then remove the virus.Scanning program can look at specific disk or files when you require it, or it can be set to look at eachprogram, which is about to be executed.The first important thing to know about computer viruses is that nothing in the field is absolute orstandardized. New viruses are created and companies sell software designed to detect and destroyknown viruses and again new viruses are created, etc., in a never-ending cycle of increasingsophistication.A computer virus is a computer program that is able to copy all or part of its code into other programsor files. They are also capable of performing malicious or harmful processes, such as deleting orchanging files. Damage caused by a virus is called the ‘payload’. One important feature of computerviruses is that they are platform and/or application specific. You must be alert about getting a virusbefore you get one – • Make sure your system was booted from a virus-free original boot disc, • Scan all new software media with antivirus software, • Write-protects new software immediately on receipt, then copy it and work from the copies (store the originals in a safe place). • Use write-protection mechanisms on discs, • Maintain up-to-date virus-free backups of your files, • Only use Shareware and public domain programs from reliable sources.Microsoft has a Macro Virus Protection Tool available from their Web site. The tool is supposed towarn you if you are about to open a file that contains macros (good or evil ones) and will scan anddestroy the Concept macro virus.4.2 File Compression: Compression programs are very useful on computers where disk space islimited. If you have a lot of files that you want to keep handy, but you do not have enough room onyour hard disk, you can compress them, and decompress them only when they are needed.You can probably imagine the advantage of file compression in file transfer. Compressed files aresmaller and it takes less time to transfer them. Most files available on Internet are distributed asARCHIVES. Archives are files that contain compressed files. Archives usually have file names endingwith ZIP, LZH, ARJ, or ARC, depending on how they were created.A SELF-EXTRACTED ZIP FILE is an executable program file (.EXE file) that includes both a Zipfile and software to extract or unzip the contents of a Zip file. User can extract the contents by simplyrunning it. This is a convenient, because the end user does not need an unzip program (WINZIP).
4.3 Scandisk & Defrag: Scandisk checks your hard drive for errors. There are two different Scandiskoptions, STANDARD and THOROUGH.In case you are running the Scandisk for the first time, do a through check. When you run the Scandiskin the future, you can run the standard check. You should make sure that you are not doing anythingelse when you run Scandisk, as any activity on the hard drive will cause it to restart. Close any otherapplications you may be running before you start Scandisk. If you are running a through test, go eatlunch. It will take a quite some time.Once the Scandisk is over, you may want to run DISK DEFRAGMENTER. It is in the same folder asScandisk on the start menu. Disk Defragmenter or defrag rearranges the data on your hard drive sothat programs and data are all stored in consecutive locations. Defrag, like the through Scandiskcheck, takes a long time, so it is recommended that one must select ‘All hard drives’. It will take fewhours before defragmentation of the disk is over.Once you have run both Scandisk and defrag, you have taken a major step towards keeping yoursystem running at its best. As you know that Windows saves the data into the first open space it comesacross. This means that sometimes files can get broken up into smaller pieces, which makes it takelonger time to load those files.Disk Defragmentation consolidates fragmented files and folders on your computer’s hard disk, so thateach occupies a single, contiguous space on the Volume. As a result, your system can gain access toyour files and folders and save new ones more efficiently. By consolidating your files and folders,Disk Defragmenter also consolidates the Volume’s free space, making it less likely that new files willbe fragmented.
Chapter 5InternetThe Internet, an umbrella term covering countless networks and services is a global network that wasinitiated in the 1960’s by a team of scientists under a U.S. government research contract.It rapidly became evident that people wanted to share information between networks, and as a resultcommercial networks were developed to meet consumer demand. Today’s Internet is somewhatdifficult to describe. Essentially, the Internet is a network of computers that access to information andpeople.Internet also called as Net, is the World’s largest network providing free exchange of information. Thedefinition for Internet, which can be best understood by a layman, is that the Internet consists of anincredible number of participants, connected machines, software programs, and a massive quantity ofinformation spread all around the world. Internet can be considered as millions of people constantlycommunicating about every topic under the sun.However, since the Internet has grown to a phenomenal size, it has also become complex for users. Tohelp the growing number of users, who are not computer professionals, various developments hasoccurred. First is the setting up of online service like Yahoo, Rediffmail, etc. These Online servicesoperate on one powerful computer, connected to the Internet. User from any part of the world connectto this computer and avail various facilities there, which includes access to information from database,software libraries, news, bulletin boards for various interest groups, online chat facilities, E-mail etc.A revolutionary development on the Internet is the World Wide Web (WWW) or Web in short.5.1 World Wide Web: The World Wide Web (WWW), which is a component (part) of the Internet, isa collection of web pages. The Web provides access to large amounts of information located on manydifferent servers. The Web also provides access to many of the services available on the Internet.The increasing popularity of the Net is mainly because of World Wide Web. Web documents allowuser interaction freely with the application through dialog boxes and forms.5.2 Web Pages: The fundamental unit of the Web is the web pages. It contains information that canbe a combination of text, pictures and hyperlinks. The information displayed on the web page includesgraphics, video and audio.Hyperlinks are also known as links. Each link in a web page refers to another web page. A hyperlinkcan be a word, a group of words, a picture or a part of picture. When we click on a link, the browserfetches the page connected to the link, which in turn can contain more links to other places over theNet.Hypertext is a text document that contains link to other documents.Web Site refers to a particular location on the web.The web pages that represent the online home of their author are called home pages.5.3 Web Browsers: Web browser is a client program that lets the user access and view theinformation provided by a specific type of server. Internet Explorer is a Window 95 browser fromMicrosoft. It is fast and offers a number of features. It comes as a part of Microsoft PLUS.
The web browser delivers maps to all the topics on the Internet. The web maps are called directories.Web directory is used to locate a site of interest. There are many directories available for searchingthe Net, which are unique and accurate. Each directory consists of many levels or sub-directories. Thetop level gives the broadest overview of the Net.5.4 Search Engines: Search engines are organized in a particular manner for easy and productivebrowsing. Search engines allow the user to type in keywords to be searched. The engine searches for amatching word and gives a list of hyperlinks to web sites.Web directories may or may not contain search engines. The bigger directories have built-in searchengines, which are more convenient as both browsing through the directory and using the searchengine are possible. The directories that come with the built-in engines are Yahoo!, Lycos and Exite.Yahoo! Is a large, well-indexed directory of web pages. It is one of the most dynamic and useful websearch tools. It is highly accessible. Both Usenet news and e-mail can be assessed from a commonpage more conveniently.It is not a complete text search engine. For full text search, we need to use links for other searchservices displayed at the bottom of the pages. It is an integrated searching environment, which enablesthe user to browse and search from the same page.5.5 E-Mail: Email or Electronic Mail as the name suggests, is an electronic form or regular mail. TheInternet Service Provider (ISP) delivers the message conveyed in the e-mail to the recipient.One of the major advantages of E-mail is that it is very easy to use, very fast and is much cheaper thansending regular mail. Every user who has an e-mail access to the Internet will have an e-mail address.The ISP delivers the message sent by the user to the recipient’s computer. This computer then looksup the user to whom the mail is addressed. If the recipient exits the destination computer will move themails into the mailbox. If the recipient does not exist then the e-mail is bounced back to the sender.5.6 More Information: Internet contains topics other than mailing, news and servers. We can findsome fascinating things on the net.The National Weather Map – When we click on any point in the map, a whether forecast for thatparticular place is displayed.WWW Weather World – We get here weather maps, animation, infrared satellite photographs andvisible light photographs.The Universities – Many Universities all over the world have Internet connection. Any particularinstitution can be selected from the list organized by its domain.Internet Distribution Services - We can access books and magazines partly or entirely on the Net.Books - There is a bunch of bookstores available on the Net.The Commerce Word – The WWW is more serviceable to people in the World. Businessorganizations access the Net with web pages. For more information about the Commerce World, theInternet Mall, the Internet shopping Network and Branch Mall are available.
5.7 Communication on the Web: Communication on the Web can take place in many contexts. Thedifferent ways of communication on the Web are given below: -Interpersonal – The user can create a home page on the Web, which conveys personal or professionalinformation. Home pages are the top-level page for a server, organization or an individual. Whencreated by individuals, the home page reveals detailed personal information about its author and islisted in directories of home pages.Group – People with common interest can form an association on the Web. These interaction systemsinclude Web-based “chat” or conferencing systems.Mass – The Web can be used for mass communication just like other media. Many commercial andnon-commercial magazines are distributed throughout the Web. Any person can read the publiclyavailable Web pages and this is therefore a one to many communications.5.8 Downloading: It means simply transferring a file from a host computer to your computer. Owingto advancement of Internet technology today’s browsers come fully equipped with the tools necessaryto download most files.If you want some more advanced features for downloading sites then you can use download tools.Following are some download tools, which can be used for downloading sites. Fresh Download Download Accelerator Plus Leech Get 2001 Webcow ScanDL Download Express
Chapter 6E-Commerce (EC)E-Commerce is defined as buying and selling of products and services over the Internet, but there aremany more aspects to it. There are different definitions to E-Commerce: 1. From a communication perspective, EC is the delivery of information, product, services, or payment via telephone lines, networks or any other means. 2. From a business process perspective, EC is the application of technology towards the automation of business transactions and workflows. These applications may result in more effective performance, greater economic efficiency, and more rapid exchange. 3. From a service perspective, EC is a tool that addresses the desire of firms, consumers, and management to cut service costs while improving the quality of services and increasing the speed of service delivery. For example, in the case of online trading, it can add value by including trend analysis etc. 4. From an online perspective, EC provides the capability of buying and selling products and information on the Internet and other online services.
Chapter 7Web Commerce7.1 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)The administrative bodies with large information systems came to a point where typing/printing of allthe information arriving or leaving their domain is no longer feasible. It is very difficult to respondhundreds and thousands of standard forms after data entry and processing in the computer. The wholeprocess is time consuming and prone to human errors during data entry and expensive to operate.The solution to the above problem comes in the form of EDI. As quite obvious from the name, EDIrefers to the electronic interchange of data between computer systems. The recipient computer withoutthe need of human intervention directly uses the information transmitted. EDI is defined as the transferof structured data for processing from the computer-to-computer using agreed formats and protocols.7.2 Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT)An EFT system involves the electronic movement of funds and fund information between financialinstitutions. The transfers are based on EDI technology transfer of funds. EDI can be useful of almostany sector; however, banks have been the primary user for EDI service till now.7.3 Value-Added Networks (VAN)VAN is a communication network that typically exchanges EDI messages among trading partnersBusinesses can exchange data either by connecting to each other directly or by hooking into a VAN.
Chapter 8Electronic Payment SystemsIn everyday life, you pay for goods and services in a number of different ways, you can pay by cash,check, credit card, or debit card. Now with the increasing commercialization of the Internet, and thepopularity of the Web, consumers and businesses are both looking for ways to conduct business overthe Internet.The methods that have been developed for making payments on the Internet are essentially electronicversions of the traditional payment systems we use everyday –cash, checks, and credit cards. Thefundamental difference between the electronic payment system and traditional one is that everything isdigital i.e., everything about the payment has been virtualized into strings of bits. This virtualizationwill make many of the electronic payment options appears similar to each other.8.1 Electronic Cheques: Credit card payments will undoubtedly be popular for commerce on theInternet. However, following two systems have been developed to let consumers use electroniccheques to pay Web merchants directly. a) By the Financial Services Tech. Corpn. (FSTC) b) By Cyber Cash8.2 Smart Cards: Smart cards have an embedded microchip instead of magnetic strip.The chip contains all the information a magnetic strip contains but offers the possibility ofmanipulating the data and executive applications on the card. Three types of smart cards haveestablished themselves. a) Contract Cards – Smart cards that need to insert into a reader in order to work, such as the smart card reader or automatic teller machines. b) Contactless Cards – Contactless smart cards do not need to be inserted into a reader. Just waving them near a reader is just sufficient for the card to exchange data. This type of cards is used for opening doors. c) Combi Cards - Combi Cards contain both technologies and allow a wider range of applications.8.3 Electronic Purses: Electronic Purse is yet another way to make payments over the net. It is verysimilar to a prepaid card.For example, Bank issues a stored value cards to its customers, the customer can then transfer valuefrom their accounts to the cards at an ATM, a personal computer, or a specially equipped telephone.When the value on a card is spent, consumer can load additional funds from their accounts on the card.The electronic purse card can be used as an ATM card as well as a credit card.
Chapter 9Microsoft Outlook-2000Microsoft outlook 2000 is a Window messaging system. It includes customizable email, scheduling,task and contact tracking tool to help you efficiently manage your office activities.9.1 Outlook BarThe Outlook bar is a list of shortcuts that appears in the far-left pane of the Microsoft Outlook screen.These shortcuts allow you to easily switch between different aspects of Microsoft Outlook. TheOutlook bar is customizable and contains two ‘group’ of shortcuts by default: Outlook Shortcuts andMy Shortcuts. Outlook 2000 also includes a group called Other Shortcuts. The most common shortcutbar is described below:Outlook Today – Shows a daily overview of appointment, tasks and email scheduled for that day orseveral days.Inbox – Stores all your incoming messages.Calendar – Opens you calendar so you can schedule meetings appointments or check youravailability.Contacts – Allows you to store a detailed list of personal contacts.Tasks – Here you can list your tasks, schedule tasks and monitor their status.Journal – Allows you to track sent and received email from a variety of different contacts.Notes – Notes are the electronic equivalent of paper sticky notes. Use notes to jot down questions,ideas, reminders, or anything you would write on paper.Deleted Items – contains emails, contact, tasks, and other items that have been deleted from variousfolders.9.2 Configuring Outlook for Your Email: Outlook was designed first as an e-mail communicationtool such as: Creating e-mail messages Sending an e-mail Receiving an e-mail Managing the e-mail – Sorting, field Chooser Folders Selecting multiple messages Opening folders Filters Rules Mail merger to a database file Create/Faxes/E-mails Sending and viewing attachments Acting on messages Recalling e-mail messages
Printing e-mail messagesMoving messagesSubscribing to mailing listsLeaving a mail listOrganizing e-mail addresses using the address bookCreating a personal mailing list