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DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR
WHAT IS DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR ?

A database administrator is a person responsible for the

•   installation

   configuration

   upgradation

   administration

   monitoring and maintenance of databases.
PRIMARY ROLES OF DBA


     Database design

     Database accessibility

     Performance issues

     Capacity issues

     Data replication

     Table Maintenance
WHY DBA IS POPULAR ?
   Data is essential for the operation of any organization.

   Database are created to organize these data.

   Better the design and utility of database, the better is the
    organization.

   For a better database, we need a skilled database administrator
    to manage data properly.
SKILLS REQUIRED

   Knowledge of Structured Query Language.
   Database designing.
   Understanding of distributed computing architectures.
   Knowledge of underlying operating system
    e.g. Windows Server 2003, Solaris, etc.
   Knowledge about the RDBMS itself e.g. Microsoft SQL
    Server, Oracle, etc.
   Ready to face challenges and solve them quickly.
HIERARCHICAL LEVEL OF DBA’S
    Data Analysts/Query designers

    Junior DBA

    Midlevel DBA

    Senior DBA

    DBA consultant

    Manager/Director of Database Administration.
DBA FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION
TYPES OF DBA
   •   System DBA
   •   Database architect
   •   Database analyst
   •   Data modeler
   • Application   DBA
   •   Task-orientated DBA
   •   Performance analyst
   •   Data warehouse administrator
System DBA
   Focuses on technical rather than business issues, primarily
    system administration area.

   Installing new DBMS versions and applying it

   Interfacing with any other technologies required by database
    applications .

   Ensuring appropriate storage for the DBMS .
Database Architect
   Involved only in new design and development work not in
    maintenance, administration, or tuning.

   Designing new databases skills are different from
    implementation and running existing database.

   Translating logical data models into physical database designs
Database Analyst
   Really no set definition for this position.

   Sometimes junior DBAs are referred to as database analysts. A
    role similar to that of the database architect.

   A database analyst is just another term used by some
    companies instead of database administrator.
Data Modeler
   Data models describe structured data for storage in data
    management systems such as relational databases.

   The main aim is to support the development of information
    systems by providing the definition and format of data.
Application DBA
   Expert in writing and debugging complex SQL.

   Knows the best ways to convert database requests into
    application programs.

   Focus on an individual application, result in better service to
    the developers of that application.

   Have a better understanding of how the application impacts the
    overall business.
Task-Orientated DBA
   Larger organizations create very specialized DBAs that focus
    on a specific DBA task.

   Example of a task-oriented DBA is a backup-and recovery.

   Knowledgeable specialists tackle very important DBA tasks.
Performance Analyst
   Performance analysts are a specific type of task-oriented DBA.
   The performance analyst focuses solely on the performance of
    database applications.
   A performance analyst will have very detailed technical
    knowledge of the DBMS.
   The performance analyst should not be a system DBA.
   Able to speak with application developers in their language to
    help them facilitate appropriate program changes for
    performance.
Data Warehouse Administrator
   Data warehouses are implemented for performing in-depth data
    analysis.
   To monitor and support the data warehouse environment
    DBA’s are required.
   Data warehouse administration requires experience with BI and
    query tools.
   Specialized database design for data warehousing.
   So, knowledge on data warehousing technologies such as
    OLAP, ETL skills are required.
DBA Tasks
• Database design

• Performance monitoring and tuning

• Database availability

• Security

• Backup and recovery

• Data integrity

• Release migration
Database design
• DBA must understand the theory and implementation of the
relational database management system (RDBMS) he’s using to
create the database.

• Database design - needs understanding of conceptual and logical
data modeling techniques.
                     - create and interpret entity-relationship diagrams
is essential for designing a relational database.

• The DBA must ensure that the database design and
implementation will enable a useful database for the applications and
clients that will use it.
Performance Monitoring and Tuning
Five factors influence database performance:

       Workload
       Throughput
       Resources
       Optimization
       Contention

• Whenever performance problems are encountered by an
application that uses a database, the DBA is usually the first one
called to resolve the problem.

• An effective performance monitoring and tuning strategy
requires not just DBMS expertise but knowledge outside the
scope of database administration.
Availability

• Ensure that database information is always available to all
users in a form that suits their needs.

• The faster the DBA can perform administrative tasks, the
more available the data becomes.

• The DBA must understand all of these aspects of availability
and ensure that each application is receiving the correct level
of availability for its needs.
Security

• Once the database is designed and implemented, programmers
and users will need to access and modify the data.

• However, to prevent security breaches and improper data
modification, only authorized programmers and users should
have access.

• It is the responsibility of the DBA to ensure that data is
available only to authorized users.
Backup and Recovery
• The DBA must be prepared to recover data in the event of a
problem.

• The majority of recoveries today occur as a result of application
software error and human error.

• The DBA must be prepared to recover data to a usable point, no
matter what the cause, and to do so as quickly as possible.

• To be prepared for any type of recovery, the DBA needs to develop a
backup strategy to ensure that data is not lost in the event of an error
in software, hardware, or a manual process.
Data Integrity
•A database must be designed to store the correct data in the correct
way without that data becoming damaged or corrupted. To ensure
this process, the DBA implements integrity rules using features of the
DBMS.

•Three aspects of integrity :
                 physical
                 semantic
                 internal.
•Physical issues can be handled using DBMS features such as
domains and data types.

•An example of semantic integrity is the quality of the data in the
database. Redundancy is another semantic issue.
• The DBMS relies on internal structures and code to
maintain links, pointers, and identifiers.

• In most cases, the DBMS will do a good job of maintaining
these structures, but the DBA needs to be aware of their
existence and how to cope when the DBMS fails.
DBMS Release Migration
• Installation, configuration and upgrading of Microsoft SQL
Server/ My SQL /Oracle server software and related products.

• The DBA is also responsible for managing the migration from
release to release of the DBMS.
Controlling User Access


 Database
 administrator



  Username and password
        Privileges

Users
PRIVILEGES
 Database security:
   - System security
   - Data security
 System privileges: Gaining access to the database
 Object privileges: Manipulating the content of the database objects
 Schemas: Collections of objects, such as tables, views, and sequences
 The database administrator has high-level system privileges for tasks
  such as:
    Creating new users
    Removing users
    Removing tables
    Backing up tables
LIFE AS A DBA
   DBA is expected to be available for 24*7.

   Must be an expert in Database technology.

    DBA is expected to know everything about everything.
    (i.e.) SQL queries, OS, Network protocols, handling advanced tools,
     computer hardware, etc,.

   DBA is often blamed if any fault occurs.

    They are forced to prove that database designed by him is not fault.
   DBAs are assisted with database administration tools.

   DBA is challenging and interesting job.

   One of the highest paid jobs in IT industry.

                            SALARY
   Average salary in India Rs 1,70,0010.

   Maximum salary in India is above Rs 9,86,000.
V$DATABASE
   Oracle has set of views that are frequently accessed by the DBA.
   V$DATABASE is one among those views.
   It contains more 30 columns.
    Sample Query:

    select * from v$database;
    This query gives the details about database name, database ID,
    Open mode(read/write), Protection level(yes/no), Platform
    name(microsoft windows 32 bit), etc.
DBA QUERIES
Some of the frequent queries executed by DBA:
   CREATE USER statement to create and configure an database user.

   ALTER DATABASE statement to open/mount a database.

   BACKUP statement to take backup of control files.

   RECOVER statement to recover the saved control files.



Sample query:

   create directory my_dir as '/home/oracle/andyb‘;
DATABASE ADMINISTRATION TOOLS
   SQL Server Management Studio is a software application first
    launched with the Microsoft SQL Server 2005 that is used for
    configuring, managing, and administering all components within
    Microsoft SQL Server.

   Adminer is a tool for managing content in MySQL databases.

    "Light-weight" - released in a form of a single file, approx160 KB
    in size. User-friendly interface .
DBA CERTIFICATION INFORMATION

DBMS                     WEBSITES
Oracle                   http://www.oracle.com/education/certification

Microsoft SQL Server     http://www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices

IBM DB2                  http://www.ibm.com/certify

Sybase Adaptive Server   Http://www.sybase.com/education/profcert



     • Microsoft Certified Database Administrator
     • Oracle DBA Certified Professional.
     • PostgreSQL Certified Administrator
THANK YOU

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Database administrator

  • 2. WHAT IS DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR ? A database administrator is a person responsible for the • installation  configuration  upgradation  administration  monitoring and maintenance of databases.
  • 3. PRIMARY ROLES OF DBA  Database design  Database accessibility  Performance issues  Capacity issues  Data replication  Table Maintenance
  • 4. WHY DBA IS POPULAR ?  Data is essential for the operation of any organization.  Database are created to organize these data.  Better the design and utility of database, the better is the organization.  For a better database, we need a skilled database administrator to manage data properly.
  • 5. SKILLS REQUIRED  Knowledge of Structured Query Language.  Database designing.  Understanding of distributed computing architectures.  Knowledge of underlying operating system e.g. Windows Server 2003, Solaris, etc.  Knowledge about the RDBMS itself e.g. Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, etc.  Ready to face challenges and solve them quickly.
  • 6. HIERARCHICAL LEVEL OF DBA’S  Data Analysts/Query designers  Junior DBA  Midlevel DBA  Senior DBA  DBA consultant  Manager/Director of Database Administration.
  • 8. TYPES OF DBA • System DBA • Database architect • Database analyst • Data modeler • Application DBA • Task-orientated DBA • Performance analyst • Data warehouse administrator
  • 9. System DBA  Focuses on technical rather than business issues, primarily system administration area.  Installing new DBMS versions and applying it  Interfacing with any other technologies required by database applications .  Ensuring appropriate storage for the DBMS .
  • 10. Database Architect  Involved only in new design and development work not in maintenance, administration, or tuning.  Designing new databases skills are different from implementation and running existing database.  Translating logical data models into physical database designs
  • 11. Database Analyst  Really no set definition for this position.  Sometimes junior DBAs are referred to as database analysts. A role similar to that of the database architect.  A database analyst is just another term used by some companies instead of database administrator.
  • 12. Data Modeler  Data models describe structured data for storage in data management systems such as relational databases.  The main aim is to support the development of information systems by providing the definition and format of data.
  • 13. Application DBA  Expert in writing and debugging complex SQL.  Knows the best ways to convert database requests into application programs.  Focus on an individual application, result in better service to the developers of that application.  Have a better understanding of how the application impacts the overall business.
  • 14. Task-Orientated DBA  Larger organizations create very specialized DBAs that focus on a specific DBA task.  Example of a task-oriented DBA is a backup-and recovery.  Knowledgeable specialists tackle very important DBA tasks.
  • 15. Performance Analyst  Performance analysts are a specific type of task-oriented DBA.  The performance analyst focuses solely on the performance of database applications.  A performance analyst will have very detailed technical knowledge of the DBMS.  The performance analyst should not be a system DBA.  Able to speak with application developers in their language to help them facilitate appropriate program changes for performance.
  • 16. Data Warehouse Administrator  Data warehouses are implemented for performing in-depth data analysis.  To monitor and support the data warehouse environment DBA’s are required.  Data warehouse administration requires experience with BI and query tools.  Specialized database design for data warehousing.  So, knowledge on data warehousing technologies such as OLAP, ETL skills are required.
  • 17. DBA Tasks • Database design • Performance monitoring and tuning • Database availability • Security • Backup and recovery • Data integrity • Release migration
  • 18. Database design • DBA must understand the theory and implementation of the relational database management system (RDBMS) he’s using to create the database. • Database design - needs understanding of conceptual and logical data modeling techniques. - create and interpret entity-relationship diagrams is essential for designing a relational database. • The DBA must ensure that the database design and implementation will enable a useful database for the applications and clients that will use it.
  • 19. Performance Monitoring and Tuning Five factors influence database performance:  Workload  Throughput  Resources  Optimization  Contention • Whenever performance problems are encountered by an application that uses a database, the DBA is usually the first one called to resolve the problem. • An effective performance monitoring and tuning strategy requires not just DBMS expertise but knowledge outside the scope of database administration.
  • 20. Availability • Ensure that database information is always available to all users in a form that suits their needs. • The faster the DBA can perform administrative tasks, the more available the data becomes. • The DBA must understand all of these aspects of availability and ensure that each application is receiving the correct level of availability for its needs.
  • 21. Security • Once the database is designed and implemented, programmers and users will need to access and modify the data. • However, to prevent security breaches and improper data modification, only authorized programmers and users should have access. • It is the responsibility of the DBA to ensure that data is available only to authorized users.
  • 22. Backup and Recovery • The DBA must be prepared to recover data in the event of a problem. • The majority of recoveries today occur as a result of application software error and human error. • The DBA must be prepared to recover data to a usable point, no matter what the cause, and to do so as quickly as possible. • To be prepared for any type of recovery, the DBA needs to develop a backup strategy to ensure that data is not lost in the event of an error in software, hardware, or a manual process.
  • 23. Data Integrity •A database must be designed to store the correct data in the correct way without that data becoming damaged or corrupted. To ensure this process, the DBA implements integrity rules using features of the DBMS. •Three aspects of integrity : physical semantic internal. •Physical issues can be handled using DBMS features such as domains and data types. •An example of semantic integrity is the quality of the data in the database. Redundancy is another semantic issue.
  • 24. • The DBMS relies on internal structures and code to maintain links, pointers, and identifiers. • In most cases, the DBMS will do a good job of maintaining these structures, but the DBA needs to be aware of their existence and how to cope when the DBMS fails.
  • 25. DBMS Release Migration • Installation, configuration and upgrading of Microsoft SQL Server/ My SQL /Oracle server software and related products. • The DBA is also responsible for managing the migration from release to release of the DBMS.
  • 26. Controlling User Access Database administrator Username and password Privileges Users
  • 27. PRIVILEGES  Database security: - System security - Data security  System privileges: Gaining access to the database  Object privileges: Manipulating the content of the database objects  Schemas: Collections of objects, such as tables, views, and sequences  The database administrator has high-level system privileges for tasks such as:  Creating new users  Removing users  Removing tables  Backing up tables
  • 28. LIFE AS A DBA  DBA is expected to be available for 24*7.  Must be an expert in Database technology.  DBA is expected to know everything about everything. (i.e.) SQL queries, OS, Network protocols, handling advanced tools, computer hardware, etc,.  DBA is often blamed if any fault occurs.  They are forced to prove that database designed by him is not fault.
  • 29. DBAs are assisted with database administration tools.  DBA is challenging and interesting job.  One of the highest paid jobs in IT industry. SALARY  Average salary in India Rs 1,70,0010.  Maximum salary in India is above Rs 9,86,000.
  • 30. V$DATABASE  Oracle has set of views that are frequently accessed by the DBA.  V$DATABASE is one among those views.  It contains more 30 columns. Sample Query: select * from v$database; This query gives the details about database name, database ID, Open mode(read/write), Protection level(yes/no), Platform name(microsoft windows 32 bit), etc.
  • 31. DBA QUERIES Some of the frequent queries executed by DBA:  CREATE USER statement to create and configure an database user.  ALTER DATABASE statement to open/mount a database.  BACKUP statement to take backup of control files.  RECOVER statement to recover the saved control files. Sample query:  create directory my_dir as '/home/oracle/andyb‘;
  • 32. DATABASE ADMINISTRATION TOOLS  SQL Server Management Studio is a software application first launched with the Microsoft SQL Server 2005 that is used for configuring, managing, and administering all components within Microsoft SQL Server.  Adminer is a tool for managing content in MySQL databases. "Light-weight" - released in a form of a single file, approx160 KB in size. User-friendly interface .
  • 33. DBA CERTIFICATION INFORMATION DBMS WEBSITES Oracle http://www.oracle.com/education/certification Microsoft SQL Server http://www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices IBM DB2 http://www.ibm.com/certify Sybase Adaptive Server Http://www.sybase.com/education/profcert • Microsoft Certified Database Administrator • Oracle DBA Certified Professional. • PostgreSQL Certified Administrator