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Hoa lec iii romansique intro


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Hoa lec iii romansique intro

  1. 1. Romanesque Architecture Ar. Hena Tiwari
  2. 2. Romanesque – means “Roman-like” -there were a broad range of styles embracing many regional variants that flourished in Western Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. Romanesque reflects not only Roman characteristics but also the Hiberno-Saxon linear patterns and even some Islamic and Byzantine traditions. It's the first European style. It can be found all around Europe.
  3. 3. • Romanesque art developed thanks to a series of causes: – The end of Barbarian invasions – The decomposition of Cordoba’s caliphate – The establishment of peace in the Christian world, with the development of the cities, commerce and industry.
  4. 4. Expansion • The factors of the expansion of Romanesque arte were: – Development of feudal system, that demanded works (castles) – The expansion of religious orders (Benedictines), expanded the monasteries – The pilgrimage routes – The crusades
  5. 5. Typologies • There are three main architectonical typologies: Churches Monasteries Castles
  6. 6. Regional characteristics Features of Romanesque architecture that is seen in different areas around Europe. •Small churches are generally aiseless, with a projecting apse. •Large churches are basilical with a nave flanked by aisles and divided by an arcade. •Abbey churches and cathedrals often had transepts. •Round arches in arcades, windows, doors and vaults. •Massive walls •Towers •Piers •Stout columns •Buttresses of shallow projection
  7. 7. •Groin vaulting •Portals with sculpture and moldings •Decorative arcades as an external feature, and frequently internal also •Spiral ornament •Cushion capitals •Murals Some large churches have projecting transepts as at Pisa Cathedral. Towers are freestanding and may be circular as at Pisa. Windows are small. The façade takes two forms, that which coincides with the basilical section of nave and aisles, as at Pisa Cathedral and that which screens the form, such as San Michele, Pavia. Dwarf galleries are the prevalent form of decoration on the façade as at Pisa Cathedral.
  8. 8. •A number of churches have facades and interiors that are faced with polychrome marble, as at San Miniato al Monte. •Portals were rarely large and were square rather than round. •Shallow relief carving in marble was a feature of some facades. •Ocular and Wheel windows are commonly found in facades •Portals are sometimes covered by an open porch supported on two columns standing on the backs of lions. •Internally, large churches generally have arcades resting on columns of Classical form. •There is little emphasis on vertical mouldings. •The wall surface above the arcade was covered with decorative marble, mosaic or fresco.
  9. 9. •Galleries such as that at Pisa were uncommon, but occur in convent churches as nuns' galleries. •Open timber roofs prevailed. •The crossing is often covered by a dome. •The choir may be above a vaulted crypt, accessible from the nave or aisles. •Freestanding polygonal baptisteries were common. •Cloisters often have an array of elaborately twisted columns, and fanciful decoration in mosaic tiles.
  10. 10. Architectural Characteristics  They recover the “round arch” used by the Romans.  The church is covered by stoned vaults, called barrel vault, which is a succession of round arches, one after another.
  11. 11.  The structure is very heavy and as a consequence:  Walls are thick  They need strong buttresses  They use few and small windows Sensations • Intimate Sensation • Stability • Spiritual Sensation • Symbolism: Latin cross
  12. 12. Church • It was the main building • It symbolized God’s kingdom • The holiest part was the apse • It had cross shape • Symbolism was important: – Circular parts reflect perfection so they were linked to God – Squared parts are related to the human. • Characteristics: – Monumental, trying to imitate the Roman models in the Pilgrimage churches – Small in country churches – They were designed for advertising Catholic church – They were lasting, made of stone – Plans could be: • Latin cross • Polygonal • Basilical Latin cross Polygonal Basilical
  13. 13. • Elevation: • The church is covered by stoned vaults • Wall are thick • They need strong buttresses • Foundations are strong • Few windows • Interior elevation: it consists of three levels: • First floor with columns or cross- shaped pillars • Second floor with the tribune (corridor over looking the nave, over the aisles) • Clerestory: area of windows opening to the outside. Colum n Pillar Tribune Clerestory
  14. 14. Types of Covers Barrel vault: it was used mainly to cover the central nave Groin vault was common in aisles and ambulatory Dome: spherical domes were used in apses. The central domes could stand on pendentives or squinches
  15. 15. Monastery • It was designed as a microcosm, as the city of God • They had several dependencies: – Church – Cloister – Chapter room – Abbot’s house – Monks/ nuns rooms – Refectory – Hospital
  16. 16. Castle • Castles were defensive constructions • They were fortified for providing shelter • The wall was one of the essential elements • They tend to be build in stepped areas, easier to defend.