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Activity 7

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Brain and Cranial Nerves

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Activity 7

  1. 1. Activity 7: Nervous System Histology, Brain, & Cranial Nerves Chapters 14 & 15 – McKinley et al., Human Anatomy, 4e. Objectives: • Histology: Identify structures indicated on three different slides or images of nervous system tissue. Some of these are also visible on the classroom model of a neuron. • Human brain: Identify listed structures of the human brain on classroom models, the cranial meninges, and structures involved in cerebrospinal fluid circulation. • Human brain: Identify the 12 pairs of cranial nerves by name and number on a model and on the sheep brain. • Dissect a sheep brain and identify structures listed. 1Compilation: Mohammad Tomaraei & Cristin Fail
  2. 2. Nervous System Tissues: Spinal Cord Smear (Histology) 2
  3. 3. Nervous System Tissues: Cross Section of a Nerve (Illustration) 3
  4. 4. Nervous System Tissues: Cross Section of a Nerve (Histology) 4
  5. 5. Nervous System Tissues: Cross Section of a Nerve (Histology) 5
  6. 6. Nervous System Tissues: Teased Myelinated Nerve Fibers (Histology) 6
  7. 7. Nervous System Tissues: Multipolar Neuron Model 7
  8. 8. Nervous System Tissues: Multipolar Neuron Illustration 8
  9. 9. Brain Anatomy – Adult Human Brain 9
  10. 10. Brain Anatomy – Sheep Brain 10
  11. 11. Brain Anatomy – Adult Human Brain 11
  12. 12. Brain Anatomy – Sheep Brain 12
  13. 13. Brain Anatomy – Sheep Brain 13
  14. 14. Brain Anatomy – Cerebrum 14
  15. 15. Brain Anatomy – Cerebrum 15 • Cerebral hemispheres are divided by the longitudinal fissure into left and right sides • Central sulcus divides the frontal lobe from parietal lobes
  16. 16. Brain Anatomy – Lobes of the Brain 16
  17. 17. Brain Anatomy – White Matter of Cerebrum 17
  18. 18. Brain Anatomy – Cerebral Hemispheres 18
  19. 19. Brain Anatomy – Hemispheric Lateralization 19
  20. 20. Brain Anatomy – Lobes of the Brain 20
  21. 21. Brain Anatomy – Lobes of the Brain & their Functions 21 Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Brain Stem Cerebellum • Primary Motor Cortex (Precentral Gyrus) • Voluntary motor functions • Concentration • Verbal communication • Decision making • Planning • Personality • Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Postcentral Gyrus) • Sensory functions (Pain, heat and other sensations) • Comprehension of language • Primary Visual Cortex • Processing visual information • Storing visual memories • Understanding Speech • Interpretation and storage of auditory and olfactory sensations • Breathing • Swallowing • Heart rate Includes Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata • Coordination • Balance • Stores memories of previously learned movement patterns
  22. 22. Brain Anatomy – Primary Somatosensory Cortex 22 The amount of cortex devoted to any given body region is proportional to how richly innervated that region is.
  23. 23. Brain Anatomy – Homunculus Model 23 Which model is more realistic?
  24. 24. Brain Anatomy – Cross-section Brain Model 24 1. Corpus Callosum 2. Corpora Quadrigemina (Tectal Plate) • Superior Colliculus (pl. colliculi) • Inferior Colliculus 3. Cerebellum (Arbor Vitae) 4. 4th Ventricle 5. Central canal of spinal cord 6. Medulla Oblongata 7. Pons 8. Pituitary gland 9. Optic Chiasm 10. Hypothalamus 11. Thalamus 12. Septum Pellucidum 13. Fornix 14. Pineal Gland
  25. 25. Brain Anatomy – Corpus Callosum 25 • Carries messages between the left and right hemispheres • Its under surface forms the roof of the body of the lateral ventricle.
  26. 26. Brain Anatomy - Diencephalon • Sits on top of the brain stem • Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres • Made of three parts • Thalamus • Hypothalamus • Epithalamus 26
  27. 27. Brain Anatomy - Diencephalon 27
  28. 28. Brain Anatomy – Epithalamus & Pineal Gland • Pineal gland is an endocrine gland that secretes the hormone Melatonin. • Melatonin helps regulate day-night cycles known as the body’s Circadian Rhythm. 28
  29. 29. Brain Anatomy – Thalamus & the Interthalamic Adhesion • The Interthalamic Adhesion is located midsagitally and connects the left and right thalamic bodies 29
  30. 30. Brain Anatomy – Hypothalamus 30 Includes: • Mammillary Body • Infundibulum • Pituitary Gland • Optic Chiasm • Optic Tracts • 3rd Ventricle
  31. 31. Brain Anatomy – Functions of Hypothalamus 31 • Master control of the autonomic nervous system • Heart rate, blood pressure, digestive activities and respiration • Master control of the endocrine system • Metabolism, growth, stress responses and reproduction • Regulation of body temperature • Body’s “thermostat”, detects altered blood temperatures, heat or cool the body: shivering/sweating • Control of emotional behavior • Emotional responses: pleasure, aggression, fear, rage, contentment and sex drive • Control of food intake • Monitors levels of glucose and amino acids in the blood and produces sensations of hunger • Control of water intake • Monitors blood solute concentration • Regulation of sleep-wake rhythms • The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus directs the Pineal gland to secrete melatonin, regulating circadian rhythms.
  32. 32. Brain Anatomy – Brain Stem 32 Includes: • Midbrain (mesencephalon) • Pons • Medulla Oblongata
  33. 33. Brain Anatomy – Overview of Brain Stem Functions 33
  34. 34. Brain Anatomy – Midbrain 34 Includes: • Corpora Quadrigemina (tectal plate) • Superior Colliculus: Visual reflex center (turns eyes and head in response to visual stimulus) • Inferior Colliculus: Auditory reflex center (turns eyes and head in the direction of a sound) • Cerebral Peduncles
  35. 35. Brain Anatomy – Pons 35 Functions: • Bridge between the cerebellum and cerebrum • Houses cranial nerves • Trigeminal (CN V) • Abducens (CN VI) • Facial (CN VII) • Some of the nuclei for Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) • Helps regulate skeletal muscles of breathing
  36. 36. Brain Anatomy – Medulla Oblongata 36 Functions: • Regulates heart rate and strength of contraction • Controls blood pressure • Regulates respiratory rate • Involved in coughing, sneezing, salivating, swallowing, gagging and vomiting
  37. 37. Brain Anatomy – Medulla Oblongata & Pons 37
  38. 38. Brain Anatomy – Medulla Oblongata & Pons 38
  39. 39. Brain Anatomy – Cerebellum 39 Functions: • Processes sensory input • Coordinates movement output • Balance Includes: • Vermis • Separates right and left hemispheres • Arbor Vitae (“tree of life”)
  40. 40. Brain Anatomy – Cerebellum 40
  41. 41. Brain Anatomy – Cerebellum 41
  42. 42. Brain Anatomy – Meninges and Spaces 42
  43. 43. Brain Anatomy – Cranial Dural Septa 43
  44. 44. Brain Anatomy – Dural Venous Sinuses 44
  45. 45. Brain Anatomy – Ventricles 45
  46. 46. Brain Anatomy – Ventricles 46
  47. 47. Brain Anatomy – Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid 47
  48. 48. Brain Anatomy – Cranial Nerves 48 1. Olfactory nerve (I) 2. Optic nerve (II) 3. Oculomotor nerve (III) 4. Trochlear nerve (IV) 5. Trigeminal nerve (V) 6. Abducens nerve (VI) 7. Facial nerve (VII) 8. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) 9. Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) 10. Vagus Nerve (X) 11. Accessory Nerve (XI) 12. Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
  49. 49. Brain Anatomy – Cranial Nerves 49
  50. 50. Brain Anatomy – Cranial Nerves 50 Sensory, Motor or Both 1. Some 2. Say 3. Marry 4. Money 5. But 6. My 7. Brother 8. Says 9. Big 10.Brains 11.Matter 12.Most
  51. 51. Brain Anatomy – Origins of Cranial Nerves 51
  52. 52. Brain Anatomy – Sheep Brain 52
  53. 53. Brain Anatomy – Sheep Brain 53
  54. 54. Brain Anatomy – Trigeminal Nerve 54
  55. 55. Brain Anatomy – Facial Nerve 55
  56. 56. Brain Anatomy – Vestibulocochlear Nerve 56
  57. 57. Brain Anatomy – Glossopharyngeal Nerve 57
  58. 58. Brain Anatomy – Vagus Nerve 58
  59. 59. Brain Anatomy – Accessory & Hypoglossal Nerve 59
  60. 60. Brain Anatomy – Cerebral Nuclei 60 Includes: • Caudate Nucleus • Lentiform Nucleus • Putamen • Globus Pallidus • Claustrum • Amygdaloid body
  61. 61. Brain Anatomy – Cerebral Nuclei 61
  62. 62. Brain Anatomy – Functions of Cerebral Nuclei 62 • Caudate • Spatial processing • Posture and directed movements • Putamen • Controls muscular movements at the subconscious level • Globus Pallidus • Excites and inhibits the activities of the thalamus to control muscle tone • Amygdaloid body • Expression of emotions , control of behavioral activities, development of moods • Claustrum • Processes visual information at a subconscious level
  63. 63. Brain Anatomy – Lobes & Structures of the Brain 63 B. A. C. D. E. F. G. http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif
  64. 64. Brain Anatomy – Lobes & Structures of the Brain 64 B. A. (groove) C. (groove) D. E. F. G. B. Frontal Lobe G. Parietal Lobe F. Occipital Lobe D. Temporal Lobe A. Central Sulcus (groove) E. Transverse Fissure C. Lateral Fissure http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bonoboLH-humanLH-viaTWD.gif

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