Macromolecule intro


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Macromolecule intro

  1. 1. Intro to Macro molecules<br />Macromolecules<br />
  2. 2. Carbon<br />The element of LIFE!<br />Found in all living organisms! <br />We are always looking for carbon based life forms<br />Organic molecules: molecules that contain carbon<br />C6H12O6, CO2, CH4<br />Some molecules are made of just CARBON and HYDROGEN…we call these HYDROCARBONS<br />These are important in FUEL (aka GASOLINE!!)<br />Many organic molecules, such as fats, have hydrocarbon components<br />Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy<br />Inorganic molecules: molecules that do not contain carbon<br />H2O, NH3, O2<br />
  3. 3. LE 4-4<br />Hydrogen<br />(valence = 1)<br />Oxygen<br />(valence = 2)<br />Nitrogen<br />(valence = 3)<br />Carbon<br />(valence = 4)<br />
  4. 4. Structure of Carbon<br />Structure<br />Valence electrons: 4<br />How many bonds can carbon make with other atoms?<br />4: single, double, or triple…as long as it has 4 lines touching it<br />This makes carbon a versatile atom…it can make long chains of carbons, branched carbon structures, even ring structures with itself<br />
  5. 5. LE 4-5<br />Propane<br />Ethane<br />Length<br />2-methylpropane<br />(commonly called isobutane)<br />Butane<br />Branching<br />1-Butene<br />2-Butene<br />Double bonds<br />Cyclohexane<br />Benzene<br />Rings<br />
  6. 6. Some important words to know<br />Molecule<br />Group of covalently bonded atoms<br />Macromolecule<br />large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms<br />Functional Groups<br />Group of atoms within a molecule that interact in PREDICTABLE ways<br />Polar, non-polar, acidic, basic, charged (+/-)<br />Hydroxyl group<br />Carbonyl group <br />Carboxyl group<br />Amino group<br />Sulfhydryl group<br />Phosphate group<br />
  7. 7. DNA (nucleotide)<br />ATP<br />Two REALLY Important<br />Molecules with <br />Phosphate Groups<br />
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  10. 10. LE 4-10aa<br />STRUCTURE<br />(may be written HO—)<br />Ethanol, the alcohol present in<br />alcoholic beverages<br />NAME OF COMPOUNDS<br />FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES<br />Is polar as a result of the<br />electronegative oxygen atom<br />drawing electrons toward itself.<br />Alcohols (their specific names<br />usually end in -ol)<br />Attracts water molecules, helping<br />dissolve organic compounds such<br />as sugars (see Figure 5.3).<br />
  11. 11. LE 4-10ac<br />EXAMPLE<br />STRUCTURE<br />Acetic acid, which gives vinegar<br />its sour taste<br />FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES<br />NAME OF COMPOUNDS<br />Has acidic properties because it is<br />a source of hydrogen ions.<br />Carboxylic acids, or organic acids<br />The covalent bond between<br />oxygen and hydrogen is so polar<br />that hydrogen ions (H+) tend to<br />dissociate reversibly; for example,<br />Acetic acid<br />Acetate ion<br />In cells, found in the ionic form,<br />which is called a carboxylate group.<br />
  12. 12. LE 4-10ba<br />EXAMPLE<br />STRUCTURE<br />Glycine<br />Because it also has a carboxyl<br />group, glycine is both an amine and<br />a carboxylic acid; compounds with<br />both groups are called amino acids.<br />FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES<br />NAME OF COMPOUNDS<br />Acts as a base; can pick up a<br />proton from the surrounding<br />solution:<br />Amine<br />(nonionized)<br />(ionized)<br />Ionized, with a charge of 1+,<br />under cellular conditions<br />
  13. 13. LE 4-10bc<br />EXAMPLE<br />STRUCTURE<br />Glycerol phosphate<br />NAME OF COMPOUNDS<br />FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES<br />Makes the molecule of which it<br />is a part an anion (negatively<br />charged ion).<br />Organic phosphates<br />Can transfer energy between <br />organic molecules. <br />
  14. 14. What are macromolecules made of?<br /><ul><li>A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks called monomers
  15. 15. Poly=many
  16. 16. Mono=one
  17. 17. Think of a beaded bracelet….
  18. 18. each bead is a MONOMER
  19. 19. The entire bracelet is a POLYMER
  20. 20. Large variety of polymers but there are less than 50 monomers…kinda like the alphabet…lots of words, only 26 letters
  22. 22. Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers:</li></ul>Carbohydrates<br />Proteins<br />Nucleic acids<br />***Lipids/fats are not polymers but they are still macromolecules<br />
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  25. 25. Brief Overview of 4 Macromolecules<br />Carbohydrates<br />Monomer: monosaccharaides and disaccharides<br />Polymer: polysaccharides aka complex carbohydrates (Starches)<br />Proteins<br />Monomer: Amino acids<br />Polymer: Polypeptide Chain (PROTEINS)<br />NucleicAcids<br />Monomer: Nucleotide<br />Polymer: Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)<br />Lipids, fats, oils and steroids<br />Monomer: NONE<br />Polymer: NONE<br />
  26. 26. How Would You Describe <br />These People?<br />
  27. 27. Making and Breaking Polymers<br />Polymerization:making polymers<br />Dehydration Reaction<br />Dehydrate means water loss<br />When a water molecule (H-OH) is released to join a monomer to another monomer<br />Hydrolysis<br />Hydro- water<br />Lysis- to break down<br />Def: to break apart or disassemble a polymer by adding water (H-OH)<br />
  28. 28. LE 5-2<br />Short polymer<br />Unlinked monomer<br />Dehydration removes a water<br />molecule, forming a new bond<br />Longer polymer<br />Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer<br />Hydrolysis adds a water<br />molecule, breaking a bond<br />Hydrolysis of a polymer<br />
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  30. 30. Carbohydrates<br />Monomer: Monosaccharide<br />Polymer: Disaccharide or Polysaccharide<br />Link between monomers is called: Glycosidic Linkage<br />Formed by a dehydration reaction<br />Always have Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygens<br />CxH2xOx<br />Common name: sugar<br />End with suffix “-ose”<br />Function: Energy/fuel, structure, storage<br />GLUCOSE!!!! <br />What all cells need for energy<br />
  31. 31. Carbs continued<br />Monosaccharides<br />Glucose<br />fructose<br />Disaccharides<br />sucrose<br />Polysaccharides<br />Starch<br />In plant cells; chain of glucose molecules coiled up like a phone cord<br />Glycogen<br />Excess sugar in animal cells is stored in this form; highly branched and more complex chain of glucose monomers<br />Stored in muscle and liver cells<br />When body needs energy, glycogen is broken down into glucose <br />Cellulose<br />Found in plant cell walls; made of glucose monomer; <br />building material; <br />aka FIBER; humans do NOT have the enzyme to break this polysaccharide down<br />Passes through digestive tract and keeps it healthy but NOT a nutrient<br />Some animals (cows) have microorganisms that live in their digestive tract that help break down cellulose<br />Carbs are hydrophilic because of hydroxl group (-OH)<br />Dissolve in water making sugary solutions<br />Large carbs (starches and cellulose) do not dissolve <br />Think about your towels and clothes, duh!<br />
  32. 32. Proteins<br />Monomer: amino acids<br />20 amino acids<br />Amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) groups attached to carbon<br />Only thing different is side chain…R-group<br />Polymer: polypeptide chains (proteins)<br />Link between monomers is called: polypeptide bond <br />Made by a dehydration reaction <br />(between amine group of one aa and carboxyl group of another aa)<br />STRUCTURE of A.A.<br />Amino group on one end (-NH2)<br />Carboxyl group on one end (COOH)<br />Hydrogen<br />R-group/side chain (changes)<br />Function of Proteins:<br />structural support<br />Storage<br />Transport<br />cellular communications<br />Movement<br />defense against foreign substances<br />Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells<br />
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  34. 34. Protein Structure<br />Primary structure 1’<br />Order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain<br />Secondary structure 2’<br />Polypeptide chain folds because of interactions between amino acids<br />HYDROGEN BONDING<br />Tertiary Structure 3’<br />Gives proteins 3-D shape<br />VERY IMPORTANT to function of protein<br />Beta pleated sheets and alpha helices fold based on interactions between R-groups of a.a.<br />Hydrogen bonds, polar/non-polar interactions, acid/base interactions, disulfide bonds, van der Waals forces<br />Quaternary Structure 4’<br />the association of the polypeptide chains<br />some proteins contain more than one polypeptide chain<br />Each polypeptide chain in the protein is called a subunit<br />Two or more subunits come together for a specific function<br />HEMOGLOBIN<br />On Red blood cells<br />Its shape allows RBCs to carry oxygen all around your body!<br />
  35. 35. Denaturation<br />Unraveling/unfolding of protein<br />Why would this be a problem?<br />When protein loses its 3-D shape and thus its specific function<br />Caused by:<br />Unfavorable changes in pH, temperature or other environmental condition<br />Disrupts the interactions between side chains and causes loss of shape<br />Examples:<br />Frying an egg<br />Straightening your hair<br />
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  38. 38. Fats/Lipids<br />Made of mostly carbon and hydrogen…some oxygen<br />Usually not soluble in water<br />Not a polymer but is made of molecular units<br />Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids= FAT<br />Linkage is called ESTER linkage<br />Dehydration reaction<br />Function<br />Energy storage<br />Insulation<br />waterproofing<br />
  39. 39. Types of Fats<br />Saturated<br />Solid at room temperature<br />Animal fats<br />All the carbons in the fatty acid chains contain the MAXIMUM # of hydrogen atoms around each atom<br />SATURATED with hydrogen<br />Only single bonds in fatty acid chain<br />Unsaturated/polyunsaturated fats<br />Liquid at room temperature<br />Plant oils, fish oils<br />One or more double bonded carbon atoms in fatty acid chain, then it is unsaturated<br />
  40. 40. Phospholipids<br />
  41. 41. Steroids<br />Chemical messengers<br />Structure<br />4 fused carbon rings<br />Ex. Cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol<br />Function<br />structural component of mammalian cell membranes<br />resilience and fluidity of human membranes<br />mobilized for the synthesis of steroid hormones<br />protecting the human skin against external irritants and for holding water content<br />Improvement of water balance in human skin <br />Enhanced barrier function for stratum <br />Inhibition of aging of skin <br />Water retention for hair <br />
  42. 42. Nucleic Acids<br />Monomer: Nucleotide<br />Structure of a Nucleotide<br />Made of a phosphate group, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and nitrogenous base <br />Polymer: Chain of nucleotides (nucleic acids)<br />Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)<br />Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)<br />Function<br />DNA<br />genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms<br />Instructions to make RNA and proteins<br />long-term storage of information <br />NITROGENOUS BASES: <br />Pyrimidines: cytosine and thymine<br />Purines: guanine and adenine<br />A binds to T and G binds to C in the polymer DNA<br />RNA<br />messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes<br />essential carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesis<br />Three types: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA<br />NITROGENOUS BASES: <br />Pyrimidines: cytosine and uracil<br />Purines: guanine and adenine<br />A binds to U and G binds to C in the polymer RNA<br />