Chapter 5 macromolecules


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Chapter 5 macromolecules

  1. 1. Chapter 5: Macromolecules <ul><ul><li>macromolecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polymer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monomer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>condensation reaction/ dehydration reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monosaccharide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disaccharide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glycosidic linkage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polysaccharide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triaglycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fatty acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fatty acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>steroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>catalysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polypeptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peptide bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>α - helix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>β - pleated sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disulfide bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denaturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaperonins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray crystallography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polynucleotides </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter 5: Macromolecules <ul><ul><li>nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pyrimidine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double helix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antiparallel </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3.   Macromolecules <ul><li>Macromolecules are large molecules which are made up of smaller units that have emergent properties. </li></ul>Table of Contents Back to Previous Slide
  4. 4.   Polymers and Monomers <ul><li>A polymer is a long molecule that is made up of smaller units called monomers . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Table of Contents
  5. 5.   Condensation/Dehydration Reaction <ul><li>Polymers are formed by a condensation reaction or a dehydration reaction ; this is a reaction in which a covalent bond is formed between two monomers through the loss of a water molecule. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  6. 6.   Enzyme <ul><li>An enzyme is a special macromolecule that serves as a catalyst in a chemical reaction. Most enzymes are proteins . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  7. 7.   Hydrolysis <ul><li>Hydrolysis is the process by which a polymer is broken down by the addition of water. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  8. 8. Carbohydrate <ul><li>A carbohydrate is sugar or a polymer or dimer of sugar. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  9. 9. Monosaccharides <ul><li>Monosaccharides are the simplest form of sugar; they usually have a molecular formula that is a multiple of CH 2 O. A monosaccharide has one carbonyl (>C=O) and multiple hydroxyls (-OH). The location of the carbonyl determines whether the sugar is an aldose or a ketose. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  10. 10. Disaccharide <ul><li>A disaccharide is composed of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  11. 11. Glycosidic Linkage <ul><li>A glycosidic linkage is a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  12. 12. Polysaccharides <ul><li>Polysaccharides are composed of two or sugar monomers ( monosaccharides ) joined by glycosidic linkages . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  13. 13. Starch <ul><li>A starch is a storage polysaccharide which plants stockpile as granules in their plastids (a plastid is a cellular structure within a plant cell). </li></ul>Table of Contents
  14. 14. Glycogen <ul><li>Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide which is used by animals. Animals store glycogen mainly in their muscle and liver cells. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  15. 15. Cellulose <ul><li>Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide which is a major component of plant cell walls. Most animals cannot digest cellulose , though it is in all grains, fruits and vegetables. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  16. 16. Lipids <ul><li>Lipids are not polymers and they usually aren’t large enough to be considered macromolecules . All lipids are hydrophobic (they don’t mix with water). </li></ul>Table of Contents
  17. 17. Fats <ul><li>Fats are lipids that are composed of fatty acids and glycerol by an ester linkage (a covalent bond between a carbonyl and a hydroxyl). </li></ul>Table of Contents
  18. 18. Fatty Acid <ul><li>A fatty acid has a long carbon chain with a carboxyl group attached to a hydrocarbon chain by nonpolar C-H bonds. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  19. 19. Glycerol <ul><li>Glycerol is an alcohol containing three carbons. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  20. 20. Triaglycerol (Triglyceride) <ul><li>A triaglycerol is a fat that contains three fatty acids and one glycerol . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  21. 21. Saturated Fatty Acid <ul><li>A saturated fatty acid has no double bonds, therefore hydrogen atoms can attach to the unpaired electrons on the carbons. When hydrogen atoms attach, the molecule is said to be “saturated” with hydrogen. Most animal fats are saturated. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  22. 22. Unsaturated Fatty Acid <ul><li>An unsaturated fatty acid has one or more double bond where a hydrogen atom has been removed. Most plant and fish fats are unsaturated. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  23. 23. Trans Fat <ul><li>A trans fat is made when an unsaturated fat is synthetically saturated . This creates a trans double bond. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  24. 24. Phospholipid <ul><li>Phospholipids make up the cell membrane. A phospholipid is composed of two fatty acids and a glycerol attached to a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon tails of a phospholipid are hydrophobic and the phosphate head is hydrophilic. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  25. 25. Steroids <ul><li>Steroids are lipids which have a carbon skeleton composed of four rings. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  26. 26. Cholesterol <ul><li>Cholesterol is a steroid which is a common component of the animal cell membrane. Cholesterol is made in the liver. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  27. 27. Catalysts <ul><li>A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a chemical reaction. Enzymes are the catalysts of biological functions. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  28. 28. Polypeptides <ul><li>A polypeptide is a polymer made up of amino acids . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  29. 29. Protein <ul><li>A protein is a polypeptide or a combination of polypeptides which is folded or coiled into a certain structure. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  30. 30. Amino Acids <ul><li>An amino acid is an organic molecule with an amino group and a carboxyl group. There are twenty amino acids . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  31. 31. Peptide Bond <ul><li>A peptide bond is a covalent bond between a carboxyl group and an amino group which are joined by a dehydration reaction . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  32. 32. Primary Structure <ul><li>The primary structure of a structure is the sequence of amino acids that makes up a protein . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  33. 33. Secondary Structure <ul><li>The secondary structure of a protein refers to the pattern of folds and coils of the protein. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  34. 34. α -helix <ul><li>α -helix is a type of secondary structure which is a coil held together by weak hydrogen bonds between every fourth amino acid . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  35. 35. β -pleated sheet <ul><li>β -pleated sheet is another type of secondary protein structure. In this structure, two adjacent polypeptide chains are held together by hydrogen bonds between the polypeptide backbones. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  36. 36. Tertiary Structure <ul><li>The tertiary structure is the overall shape of a protein . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  37. 37. Hydrophobic Interaction <ul><li>Hydrophobic interaction is the clustering of the nonpolar chains in the center of the protein —away from the water. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  38. 38. Disulfide Bridges <ul><li>Disulfide bridges form where two crysteine monomers are brought together by the folding of the protein . The sulfurs on either side of the protein bond together, which reinforces the shape of the protein. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  39. 39. Quaternary Structure <ul><li>The quaternary structure of a protein is the overall structure resulting from the grouping of the polypeptide subunits. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  40. 40. Denaturation <ul><li>Denaturation occurs when the environment of a protein is altered and the protein unravels. When a protein is denatured it becomes biologically inactive. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  41. 41. Chaperonins <ul><li>Chaperonins are protein molecules that aid the folding process of a protein by encapsulating the protein to isolate it from any unfavorable environmental conditions. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  42. 42. X-ray Crystallography <ul><li>In 1959, the first three-dimensional structures of proteins were determined using x-ray crystallography . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  43. 43. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>A nucleic acid is a polymer composed of nucleotide monomers . Nucleic acids are the main component of genes . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  44. 44. Genes <ul><li>A gene is a unit of inheritance composed of DNA . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  45. 45. DNA and RNA <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are the two types of nucleic acids . DNA can self-replicate, and it also controls RNA synthesis and protein synthesis by means of mRNA. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  46. 46. Polynucleotides <ul><li>Polynucleotide is the polymer name for a nucleic acid . Polynucleotides are composed of nucleotide monomers . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  47. 47. Nucleotides <ul><li>A nucleotide consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a nitrogenous base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a five carbon sugar (called a pentose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a phosphate group </li></ul></ul>These two components are called a nucleoside Table of Contents
  48. 48. Pyrimidine <ul><li>A pyrimidine is one family of nitrogenous bases. It consists of a six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Cytosine, thymine and uracil are all pyrimidines . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  49. 49. Purines <ul><li>A purine is a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. Adenine and guanine are purines . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  50. 50. Ribose and Deoxyribose <ul><li>Ribose is the sugar connected to the nitrogenous base in RNA and deoxyribose is the sugar connected to the nitrogenous base in DNA . Deoxyribose lacks an oxygen on the second carbon, which differentiates it from ribose . </li></ul>Table of Contents
  51. 51. Double Helix <ul><li>James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the double helix shape of DNA . A double helix consists of two polynucleotides spiraled around an imaginary axis. </li></ul>Table of Contents
  52. 52. Antiparallel <ul><li>The two sugar-phosphate backbones in a double helix are antiparallel , which means that they run in opposite 5’-3’ directions. </li></ul>Table of Contents