Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Organic Chemistry <ul><li>The study of carbon compounds. </li></ul>Urea
Carbon’s versatility <ul><li>Forms 4 covalent bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular shape is tetrahedral. </li></ul><ul><li>B...
Major Elements Of Organic Molecules <ul><li>Carbon: +4 or -4 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen: +1 </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen: -2 <...
<ul><li>The valences are the “rules” for building organic molecules. </li></ul>
Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Organic molecules made of only carbon and hydrogen. </li></ul>
Examples
Isomers <ul><li>Compounds with the same molecular formula but have different structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Differe...
Which of these are isomers? No Yes Yes No
Types Of Isomers <ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric </li></ul><ul><li>Enantiomers </li></ul>
Structural Isomers <ul><li>Different in covalent arrangements of their atoms. </li></ul>Butane Isobutane
Geometric Isomers <ul><li>Same covalent partnership but differ in spatial arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>Arise from the i...
 
Enantiomers <ul><li>Molecules that are mirror images of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually involve an asymmetric carbon...
 
Comment <ul><li>Organisms are sensitive to even the most subtle variations in molecular architecture. </li></ul>
Example - Thalidomide <ul><li>Cells can distinguish between two isomers. </li></ul><ul><li>One is an effective drug. </li>...
Results of Thalidomide
Functional Groups <ul><li>A group of atoms attached to a carbon skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Have consistent properties. </...
Importance of Functional Groups
Table 4.1  Functional Groups of Organic Compounds
Hydroxyl Group <ul><li>A hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.  -OH </li></ul><ul><li>Very polar....
Carbonyl Group <ul><li>A carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.  - C=O </li></ul><u...
Aldehydes <ul><li>A carbonyl group at the end of a carbon skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. - C=O  </li></ul><ul><li>|  </li...
Ketones <ul><li>A carbonyl group in the middle of a carbon chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.  -C-C-C- </li></ul><ul><li>|| </li...
Carboxyl Group <ul><li>Group with a carbon double bonded to an oxygen and to  a hydroxyl group. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.  - C...
Carboxylic Acids <ul><li>Donate H +  (acid). </li></ul><ul><li>Form many weak organic acids. </li></ul>
Amino Group <ul><li>Nitrogen bonded to two hydrogens.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. – N-H </li></ul><ul><li>| </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Sulfhydryl Group <ul><li>Sulfur bonded to a hydrogen.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.  -SH </li></ul><ul><li>Forms compounds called...
Phosphate Group <ul><li>Phosphorus with four oxygens.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. -PO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Has a net -2 charge. ...
Methyl Group <ul><li>Carbon bonded to three hydrogens.  - CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Very non-polar and hydrophobic. </li></ul...
The Structure and Function of   Macromolecules
Macromolecules <ul><li>Large molecules formed by joining many subunits together. </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as “polymers...
Monomer <ul><li>A building block of a polymer. </li></ul>AP Biology
Condensation Synthesis or Dehydration Synthesis   <ul><li>The chemical reaction that joins monomers into polymers. </li></...
Hydrolysis <ul><li>Reverse of condensation synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro- water  </li></ul><ul><li>Lysis - to split <...
 
Four Main Types Of Macromolecules <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><...
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Used for fuel, building materials, and receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of C,H,O </li></ul><ul><li>...
Types Of Carbohydrates <ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Oligosaccharides </li></u...
Monosaccharides <ul><li>Mono - single </li></ul><ul><li>Saccharide - sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Simple sugars. </li></ul><ul>...
Monosaccharides <ul><li>Can be “Aldoses” or “Ketoses” depending on the location of the carbonyl group. </li></ul>
 
Examples <ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Galactose </li></ul><ul><li>Ribose </li></ul><ul><li>Fructose </li></ul>
- OSE <ul><li>Word ending common for many carbohydrates. </li></ul>
Disaccharides <ul><li>Sugar formed by joining two monosaccharides through a “glycosidic linkage”. </li></ul>
 
Examples <ul><li>Maltose =  glucose + glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Lactose =  glucose + galactose </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose =...
Oligosaccharides <ul><li>2 - 10 joined simple sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in cell membranes. </li></ul>
Polysaccharides <ul><li>Many joined simple sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for storage or structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Exam...
 
 glucose and    glucose
 
Starch <ul><li>Made of 1-4 linkages of   glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage makes the molecule form a helix. </li></ul><...
 glucose
Cellulose <ul><li>Made of 1-4 linkages of    glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage makes the molecule form a straight line. ...
   glucose
 
Comment <ul><li>Most organisms can digest starch (1- 4   linkage), but very few can digest cellulose (1- 4   linkage)....
Glycogen <ul><li>“ Animal starch” </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to starch, but has more 1-6 linkages or branches. </li></ul><u...
Glycogen Starch
Lipids <ul><li>Diverse hydrophobic molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of C,H,O </li></ul><ul><li>No general formula. </li><...
Fats and Oils <ul><li>Fats - solid at room temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Oils - liquid at room temperature. </li></ul>
Fats and Oils <ul><li>Made of two kinds of smaller molecules. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Fatty Acids <ul><li>A long carbon chain (12-18 C) with a -COOH (acid) on one end and a -CH 3  (fat) at the other. </li></ul>
Acid Fat
Neutral Fats or Triacylglycerols <ul><li>Three fatty acids joined to one glycerol. </li></ul><ul><li>Joined by an “ester” ...
Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats <ul><li>Saturated - no double bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated - one or more C=C bonds...
 
Question <ul><li>Why do fats usually contain saturated fatty acids and oils usually contain unsaturated fatty acids? </li>...
Fats <ul><li>Differ in which  fatty acids  are used. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for energy storage, cushions for organs, insul...
Question ? <ul><li>Which has more energy, a kg of fat or a kg of starch? </li></ul><ul><li>Fat - there are more C-H bonds ...
Phospholipids <ul><li>Similar to fats, but have only two fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>The third -OH of glycerol is joine...
 
Result <ul><li>Phospholipids have a hydrophobic tail, but a hydrophilic head. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assembles into micell...
Steroids <ul><li>Lipids with four fused rings. </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in the functional groups attached to the rings. </...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Informational polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Made of C,H,O,N and P </li></ul><ul><li>No general formula ...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Polymers of nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides have three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrog...
Nitrogenous Bases <ul><li>Rings of C and N </li></ul><ul><li>The N atoms tend to take up  H +  (base). </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Pentose Sugar <ul><li>5-C sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Ribose - RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose – DNA </li></ul><ul><li>RNA a...
 
DNA <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic Acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes up genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic information  source for mos...
RNA <ul><li>Ribonucleic Acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and protein synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic information for...
DNA and RNA <ul><li>More will be said about DNA and RNA in future lessons. </li></ul>
Proteins <ul><li>The molecular tools of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of C,H,O,N, and sometimes S. </li></ul><ul><li>No...
Uses Of Proteins <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li...
Proteins <ul><li>Polypeptide chains of Amino Acids linked by peptide bonds. </li></ul>
Amino Acids <ul><li>All have a Carbon with four attachments: </li></ul><ul><li>-COOH (acid) </li></ul><ul><li>-NH 2  (amin...
R groups <ul><li>20 different kinds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonpolar - 9 AA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar - 6 AA </li></...
Amino Acids
Amino Acids
R groups <ul><li>Contain the S when present in a protein.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cysteine or Cys  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Polypeptide Chains <ul><li>Formed by dehydration synthesis between the carboxyl group of one AA and the amino group of the...
 
Levels Of Protein Structure <ul><li>Organizing the polypeptide into its 3-D functional shape. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primar...
Primary <ul><li>Sequence of amino  acids in the  polypeptide chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Many different  sequences are  possi...
Secondary <ul><li>3-D structure formed by hydrogen bonding between the R groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Two main secondary stru...
Tertiary <ul><li>Bonding between the R groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophobic  interactions...
Quaternary <ul><li>When two or more polypeptides unite to form a functional protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: hemoglobin...
Is Protein Structure Important?
Denaturing Of A Protein <ul><li>Events that cause a protein to lose structure (and function). </li></ul><ul><li>Example: <...
 
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Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry

  1. 1. Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
  2. 2. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>The study of carbon compounds. </li></ul>Urea
  3. 3. Carbon’s versatility <ul><li>Forms 4 covalent bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular shape is tetrahedral. </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds easily to itself. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Major Elements Of Organic Molecules <ul><li>Carbon: +4 or -4 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen: +1 </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen: -2 </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen: -3 </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The valences are the “rules” for building organic molecules. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Organic molecules made of only carbon and hydrogen. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Examples
  8. 8. Isomers <ul><li>Compounds with the same molecular formula but have different structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Different molecular and chemical properties. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Which of these are isomers? No Yes Yes No
  10. 10. Types Of Isomers <ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric </li></ul><ul><li>Enantiomers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Structural Isomers <ul><li>Different in covalent arrangements of their atoms. </li></ul>Butane Isobutane
  12. 12. Geometric Isomers <ul><li>Same covalent partnership but differ in spatial arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>Arise from the inflexibility of double bonds. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Enantiomers <ul><li>Molecules that are mirror images of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually involve an asymmetric carbon. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Comment <ul><li>Organisms are sensitive to even the most subtle variations in molecular architecture. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Example - Thalidomide <ul><li>Cells can distinguish between two isomers. </li></ul><ul><li>One is an effective drug. </li></ul><ul><li>The other causes birth defects. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Results of Thalidomide
  17. 19. Functional Groups <ul><li>A group of atoms attached to a carbon skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Have consistent properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Their number and kind give properties to the molecule. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Importance of Functional Groups
  19. 21. Table 4.1 Functional Groups of Organic Compounds
  20. 22. Hydroxyl Group <ul><li>A hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. -OH </li></ul><ul><li>Very polar. Allow the material to be hydrophilic. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms alcohols . </li></ul>
  21. 23. Carbonyl Group <ul><li>A carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. - C=O </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of Carbonyl Group compounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aldehydes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ketones </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Aldehydes <ul><li>A carbonyl group at the end of a carbon skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. - C=O </li></ul><ul><li>| </li></ul><ul><li>H </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes written as </li></ul><ul><li>- CHO </li></ul>
  23. 25. Ketones <ul><li>A carbonyl group in the middle of a carbon chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. -C-C-C- </li></ul><ul><li>|| </li></ul><ul><li>0 </li></ul>
  24. 26. Carboxyl Group <ul><li>Group with a carbon double bonded to an oxygen and to a hydroxyl group. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. - C=OH </li></ul><ul><li>| </li></ul><ul><li>H </li></ul><ul><li>Written as: -COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Carboxylic Acids </li></ul>
  25. 27. Carboxylic Acids <ul><li>Donate H + (acid). </li></ul><ul><li>Form many weak organic acids. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Amino Group <ul><li>Nitrogen bonded to two hydrogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. – N-H </li></ul><ul><li>| </li></ul><ul><li>H </li></ul><ul><li>Forms compounds called amines . </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a base. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Sulfhydryl Group <ul><li>Sulfur bonded to a hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. -SH </li></ul><ul><li>Forms compounds called thiols . </li></ul><ul><li>Help with protein structure. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Phosphate Group <ul><li>Phosphorus with four oxygens. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. -PO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Has a net -2 charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes written as “Pi”. </li></ul><ul><li>Involved with energy transfers. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Methyl Group <ul><li>Carbon bonded to three hydrogens. - CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Very non-polar and hydrophobic. </li></ul><ul><li>Note – Remember this group for later labs. </li></ul>
  30. 32. The Structure and Function of Macromolecules
  31. 33. Macromolecules <ul><li>Large molecules formed by joining many subunits together. </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as “polymers”. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Monomer <ul><li>A building block of a polymer. </li></ul>AP Biology
  33. 35. Condensation Synthesis or Dehydration Synthesis <ul><li>The chemical reaction that joins monomers into polymers. </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bonds are formed by the removal of a water molecule between the monomers. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Hydrolysis <ul><li>Reverse of condensation synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro- water </li></ul><ul><li>Lysis - to split </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks polymers into monomers by adding water. </li></ul>
  35. 38. Four Main Types Of Macromolecules <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul>
  36. 39. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Used for fuel, building materials, and receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of C,H,O </li></ul><ul><li>General formula is CH 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>C:O ratio is 1:1 </li></ul>
  37. 40. Types Of Carbohydrates <ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Oligosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul>
  38. 41. Monosaccharides <ul><li>Mono - single </li></ul><ul><li>Saccharide - sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Simple sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>3 to 7 carbons. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be in linear or ring forms. </li></ul>
  39. 42. Monosaccharides <ul><li>Can be “Aldoses” or “Ketoses” depending on the location of the carbonyl group. </li></ul>
  40. 44. Examples <ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Galactose </li></ul><ul><li>Ribose </li></ul><ul><li>Fructose </li></ul>
  41. 45. - OSE <ul><li>Word ending common for many carbohydrates. </li></ul>
  42. 46. Disaccharides <ul><li>Sugar formed by joining two monosaccharides through a “glycosidic linkage”. </li></ul>
  43. 48. Examples <ul><li>Maltose = glucose + glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Lactose = glucose + galactose </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose = glucose + fructose </li></ul>
  44. 49. Oligosaccharides <ul><li>2 - 10 joined simple sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in cell membranes. </li></ul>
  45. 50. Polysaccharides <ul><li>Many joined simple sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for storage or structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen </li></ul></ul>
  46. 52.  glucose and  glucose
  47. 54. Starch <ul><li>Made of 1-4 linkages of  glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage makes the molecule form a helix. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel storage in plants. </li></ul>
  48. 55.  glucose
  49. 56. Cellulose <ul><li>Made of 1-4 linkages of  glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage makes the molecule form a straight line. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for structure in plant cell walls. </li></ul>
  50. 57.  glucose
  51. 59. Comment <ul><li>Most organisms can digest starch (1- 4  linkage), but very few can digest cellulose (1- 4  linkage). </li></ul><ul><li>Another example of the link between structure and function. </li></ul>
  52. 60. Glycogen <ul><li>“ Animal starch” </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to starch, but has more 1-6 linkages or branches. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the liver and muscle cells. </li></ul>
  53. 61. Glycogen Starch
  54. 62. Lipids <ul><li>Diverse hydrophobic molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of C,H,O </li></ul><ul><li>No general formula. </li></ul><ul><li>C:O ratio is very high in C. </li></ul>
  55. 63. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Fats - solid at room temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Oils - liquid at room temperature. </li></ul>
  56. 64. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Made of two kinds of smaller molecules. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol </li></ul></ul>
  57. 65. Fatty Acids <ul><li>A long carbon chain (12-18 C) with a -COOH (acid) on one end and a -CH 3 (fat) at the other. </li></ul>
  58. 66. Acid Fat
  59. 67. Neutral Fats or Triacylglycerols <ul><li>Three fatty acids joined to one glycerol. </li></ul><ul><li>Joined by an “ester” linkage between the -COOH of the fatty acid and the -OH of the alcohol. </li></ul>
  60. 68. Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats <ul><li>Saturated - no double bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated - one or more C=C bonds. Can accept more Hydrogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Double bonds cause “kinks” in the molecule’s shape. </li></ul>
  61. 70. Question <ul><li>Why do fats usually contain saturated fatty acids and oils usually contain unsaturated fatty acids? </li></ul><ul><li>The double bond pushes the molecules apart, lowering the density, which lowers the melting point. </li></ul>
  62. 71. Fats <ul><li>Differ in which fatty acids are used. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for energy storage, cushions for organs, insulation. </li></ul>
  63. 72. Question ? <ul><li>Which has more energy, a kg of fat or a kg of starch? </li></ul><ul><li>Fat - there are more C-H bonds which provide more energy per mass. </li></ul>
  64. 73. Phospholipids <ul><li>Similar to fats, but have only two fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>The third -OH of glycerol is joined to a phosphate containing molecule. </li></ul>
  65. 75. Result <ul><li>Phospholipids have a hydrophobic tail, but a hydrophilic head. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assembles into micells or bilayers, an important part of cell membranes. </li></ul>
  66. 76. Steroids <ul><li>Lipids with four fused rings. </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in the functional groups attached to the rings. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sex hormones </li></ul></ul>
  67. 77. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Informational polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Made of C,H,O,N and P </li></ul><ul><li>No general formula </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: DNA and RNA </li></ul>
  68. 78. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Polymers of nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides have three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogenous base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pentose sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phosphate </li></ul></ul>
  69. 79. Nitrogenous Bases <ul><li>Rings of C and N </li></ul><ul><li>The N atoms tend to take up H + (base). </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrimidines (single ring) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purines (double rings) </li></ul></ul>
  70. 80. Pentose Sugar <ul><li>5-C sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Ribose - RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose – DNA </li></ul><ul><li>RNA and DNA differ in a –OH group on the 3 rd carbon. </li></ul>
  71. 82. DNA <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic Acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes up genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic information source for most life. </li></ul>
  72. 83. RNA <ul><li>Ribonucleic Acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and protein synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic information for a few viruses only. </li></ul>
  73. 84. DNA and RNA <ul><li>More will be said about DNA and RNA in future lessons. </li></ul>
  74. 85. Proteins <ul><li>The molecular tools of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of C,H,O,N, and sometimes S. </li></ul><ul><li>No general formula. </li></ul>
  75. 86. Uses Of Proteins <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul>Movie
  76. 87. Proteins <ul><li>Polypeptide chains of Amino Acids linked by peptide bonds. </li></ul>
  77. 88. Amino Acids <ul><li>All have a Carbon with four attachments: </li></ul><ul><li>-COOH (acid) </li></ul><ul><li>-NH 2 (amine) </li></ul><ul><li>-H </li></ul><ul><li>-R (some other side group) </li></ul>
  78. 89. R groups <ul><li>20 different kinds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonpolar - 9 AA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar - 6 AA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrically Charged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acidic - 2 AA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic - 3 AA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  79. 90. Amino Acids
  80. 91. Amino Acids
  81. 92. R groups <ul><li>Contain the S when present in a protein. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cysteine or Cys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methionine or Met </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The properties of the R groups determine the properties of the protein. </li></ul>
  82. 93. Polypeptide Chains <ul><li>Formed by dehydration synthesis between the carboxyl group of one AA and the amino group of the second AA. </li></ul>
  83. 95. Levels Of Protein Structure <ul><li>Organizing the polypeptide into its 3-D functional shape. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary </li></ul></ul>
  84. 96. Primary <ul><li>Sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Many different sequences are possible with 20 AAs. </li></ul>
  85. 97. Secondary <ul><li>3-D structure formed by hydrogen bonding between the R groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Two main secondary structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> helix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pleated sheets </li></ul></ul>
  86. 98. Tertiary <ul><li>Bonding between the R groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophobic interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ionic bonding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disulfide bridges (covalent bond) </li></ul></ul>
  87. 99. Quaternary <ul><li>When two or more polypeptides unite to form a functional protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: hemoglobin </li></ul>
  88. 100. Is Protein Structure Important?
  89. 101. Denaturing Of A Protein <ul><li>Events that cause a protein to lose structure (and function). </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pH shifts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high salt concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heat </li></ul></ul>

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