Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Structure And Function Of Macromolecules1


Published on

Structure and Function of Macromolecules
Lecture Presentation
Mr. Hunter

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Structure And Function Of Macromolecules1

  1. 1. Structure and Function of Macromolecules <ul><li>Macromolecules are polymers built from monomers </li></ul><ul><li>A polymer is a long chained molecule composed of repeating subunits (monomers) </li></ul><ul><li>Starch is a polymer composed of glucose molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are polymers composed of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>E. Larger polymers are formed by the combining of monomers via a process called dehydration or condensation reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Within this process two monomers are joined by the removal of water. </li></ul><ul><li>The formation of starch results from the following: C6 H12 O6 + C6 H12O6----- C12H22O11 + H20 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis occurs when water is added top split large molecules. Which is the reverse of the above reaction. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material <ul><li>Carbohydrates include both simple sugars such as glucose, fructose and galactose , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>They also include polymers such as starch made from these and other subunits. </li></ul><ul><li>All carbohydrates exist in a 1 carbon:2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen ratio or CH2O 1:2:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides are the monomers of carbohydrates. Examples include glucose, and ribose (C5 H10 O5) </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides are the polymers of monosaccharides. Examples are starch, cellulose and glycogen </li></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of Carbohydrates <ul><li>The two functions of polysaccharides and energy storage and structural support . </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Storage Polysaccharides are starch and glycogen. Starch : storage polysaccharide found in plants (ex. Potatoes). Glycogen: storage polysaccharide found in animals, vertebrate muscle, and liver cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural support Polysaccharides are Cellulose and Chitin. Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls. Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of anthropods, such s lobsters and insects and the cell wall of fungi. It gives bugs their distinct “crunch” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lipids are a Diverse Group of Hydrophobic Molecules <ul><li>Lipids are hydrophobic-meaning that they do not dissolve in water (nonpolar). </li></ul><ul><li>They are not polymers. They are assembled from a variety of components. Examples of lipids include waxes, oils, fats, and steroids. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats (also called triglycerides) are made up of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids include hydrocarbon chains of variable lengths. These chains are nonpolar and therefore hydrophobic. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated fatty acids: </li></ul><ul><li>Have no double bonds between carbon atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to pack solidly at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Are linked to cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Are commonly produced in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Ex- butter and lard </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lipids a Diverse Group of Hydrophobic Molecules <ul><li>Unsaturated fatty acids: </li></ul><ul><li>Have some double bonding between carbon atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be liquid at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Are commonly produced by plants </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are corn and olive oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: Energy storage. Fats can store twice as many calories/gram as carbohydrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats provide a protective coating of vital organs and insulation. Fat is stored in adipose cells </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids make up the cell membrane: </li></ul><ul><li>Have a glycerol backbone (head), which is hydrophilic </li></ul><ul><li>Have two fatty acid tails, which are nonpolar </li></ul><ul><li>Are arranged in a bilayer in forming the cell membrane, with the polar heads pointing toward the watery cytosol and the nonpolar tails sandwiched in between </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sterioids <ul><li>Steroids are made of four rings that are fused together. </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol is a steroid. It is a common component of cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen and testosterone are steroid hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are polymers made of amino acid monomers. </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids contain a central carbon bonded to a carboxyl group , an amino group , a hydrogen atom and an R group (variable group or side chain) </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide bonds link amino acids together. These bonds are formed via. dehydration synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>The function of a protein depend on the order and number of amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four levels of protein structure </li></ul>
  7. 7. Protein Structure <ul><li>Primary structure is the sequence in which amino acids are joined </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary structure refers to one of two three-dimensional shapes that are the result of hydrogen bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha helix is a coiled shape </li></ul><ul><li>Beta pleated sheet is an accordion shape </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary structure results in a complex globular shape, due to the interaction between R-groups, such as hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds and disulfide bridges. </li></ul><ul><li>Globular proteins such as enzymes are held in position by these R-group interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary structure refers to the association of two or more polypeptide chains into one large protein. Hemoglobin is a globular protein with a quaternary structure, as it is composed of four chains. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Protein Shape and Function <ul><li>Protein shape is crucial to its function. </li></ul><ul><li>When a protein does not fold properly its function changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Chaperonins are protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of proteins within cells. They provide an isolating environment in which a polypeptide chain may attain full conformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Denaturation occurs when a protein loses its shape and its ability to function due to heat, a change in pH or other disturbance. What common example of a denatured protein can be a part of your breakfast? </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is a macromolecule composed of nucleotides </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nucleotide <ul><li>Three Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate Group </li></ul><ul><li>Five Carbon Sugar Molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Containing Base </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nucleotides Continued <ul><li>The 5 carbon sugar in the nucleotide molecule of DNA is called deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar molecules and phosphate groups are the same for nucleotide molecules in DNA </li></ul><ul><li>The nitrogen bases may be of 4 different kinds </li></ul><ul><li>2 Double Ring Purine bases: </li></ul><ul><li>2 Single Ring Pyrimidine bases </li></ul>
  11. 11. Macromolecules <ul><li>By what process are macromolecules formed? </li></ul><ul><li>By what process are they broken down into monomer subunits? </li></ul><ul><li>What molecule is removed in a condensation reaction? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ratio found in carbohydrate molecules? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the monomers of large polysaccharide molecules? </li></ul><ul><li>Which storage polysaccharide is found in plants? And which one is found in animals? </li></ul><ul><li>What are four examples of lipids? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the subunits of proteins? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the bonds that link amino acids together? </li></ul>