How many bonds can a carbon atom make? 4 Why- 4 valence electrons
Use example of chlorophyll and the cause of leaves changing colors.
When small molecules called monomers join together, they form polymers, or large molecules.
ATP - adenosine triphosphate - created in the mitochondria of the cells
Starches and sugars are examples of carbohydrates that are used by living things as a source of energy. Starches form when sugars join together in a long chain.
High fructose corn syrup sucrose
Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information. The monomers that make up a nucleic acid are nucleotides. Each nucleotide has a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Amino acids are the monomers of proteins. All amino acids have an amino group at one end and a carboxyl group at the other end.
Proteins help to carry out chemical reactions, transport small molecules in and out of cells, and fight diseases. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids folded into complex structures.
The Chemistry of Carbon
• Organic chemistry is the study of all
compounds that contain bonds between
• A carbon atom can bond to other
carbon atoms, giving it the ability to
form chains that are almost unlimited in
– Living organisms are made of molecules
that consist of carbon and other
– Carbon has the ability to form millions of
different large and complex structures.
– All life on earth is “carbon based”
– Macromolecules are formed by a process
known as polymerization.
– The smaller units, or monomers, join
together to form polymers.
– Monomer – smaller unit
– Polymer – larger unit formed by linking
form by linking
pieces like a
– Four groups of organic compounds found
in living things are:
• Carbohydrates are compounds made up of
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually
in a ratio of 1 : 2 : 1.
– Living things use carbohydrates as their
main source of energy.
– The breakdown of sugars, such as
glucose, supplies immediate energy for all
cell activities (ATP).
– Living things store extra sugar as complex
carbohydrates known as starches.
– Glucose – the simplest sugar
– Starches – complex sugars
– Starches and sugars are carbohydrates
that are used by living things as a source
of energy (ATP).
– Monosaccharide – a single sugar (glucose)
– Monosaccharides include glucose, galactose (a
component of milk), and fructose (found in many
– The large macromolecules formed from
monosaccharides are called polysaccharides.
– Mono – meaning one
– Poly – meaning many
• Lipids are generally not soluble in water. (that
means they don’t dissolve)
• Lipids are made mostly from carbon and
• The common categories of lipids are:
– Lipids can be used to store energy. Some
lipids are important parts of biological
membranes and waterproof coverings.
– Many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule
combines with compounds called fatty acids.
– The term saturated is used because the fatty acids
contain the maximum possible number of
– If there is at least one carbon-carbon
double bond in a fatty acid, it is
• Nucleic Acids
• Nucleic acids are macromolecules containing
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and
• Nucleic acids are polymers assembled from
individual monomers known as nucleotides.
• Nucleotides consist of three parts:
• a 5-carbon sugar
• a phosphate group
• a nitrogenous base
–Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic,
–There are two kinds of nucleic acids, ribonucleic
acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
–RNA contains the sugar ribose.
–DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose.
• Proteins are macromolecules that contain
nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
• Proteins are polymers of molecules called
– Amino acids are compounds with an
amino group (-NH2) on one end and a
carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other
– The portion of each amino acid that is
different is a side chain called an R-group.
– The instructions for arranging amino acids
into many different proteins are stored in
– Some proteins catalyze (control the rate of)
reactions and regulate cell processes.
• These proteins are called enzymes
– Some proteins are used to form bones and
– Other proteins transport substances into or out
of cells or help to fight disease.
• Almost all processes in the cell require
enzymes in order to occur at proper
• Each enzyme is selective for a
• Enzymes lower activation energy and
increase the rate of reaction.