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Virtual Reality: Sensing the Possibilities

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An Introduction to Virtual Reality given by Mark Billinghurst and Ross Smith on October 27th 2016 in Adelaide, Australia.

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Virtual Reality: Sensing the Possibilities

  1. 1. VIRTUAL REALITY: SENSING THE POSSIBILITIES Professor Mark Billinghurst Director Empathic Computing Lab mark.billinghurst@unisa.edu.au Dr. Ross Smith Co-Director: Wearable Computer Laboratory ross.smith@unisa.edu.au
  2. 2. Outline 5:50 – What is VR (Mark) 6:00 – History and Business of VR (Mark) 6:15 - Applications of VR (Ross) 6:25 - Tools for Developing VR (Ross) 6:35 - VR Research Directions (Mark) 6:45 – Demos (Mark and Ross)
  3. 3. Downloads to Try • Search on iOS/Play Store for: • Google Cardboard • Cardboard Camera • DiveCityCoaster • Streetview • Within
  4. 4. WHAT IS VIRTUAL REALITY?
  5. 5. Ivan Sutherland (1963) •  Sketchpad – first interactive graphics program
  6. 6. The Ultimate Display “The ultimate display would, of course, be a room within which the computer can control the existence of matter. A chair displayed in such a room would be good enough to sit in. Handcuffs displayed in such a room would be confining, and a bullet displayed in such a room would be fatal”. Ivan Sutherland, 1965
  7. 7. An Invisible Interface
  8. 8. Virtual Reality Computer generated multi-sensory simulation of an artificial environment that is interactive and immersive.
  9. 9. What is Virtual Reality? Virtual reality is.. a computer technology that replicates an environment, real or imagined, and simulates a user's physical presence and environment to allow for user interaction. (Wikipedia) • Defining Characteristics • Environment simulation • Presence • Interaction
  10. 10. Defined in Terms of Presence •  Presence is the key to defining VR in terms of experience •  Presence is defined as the sense of being in an environment •  Telepresence is defined as the experience of presence in an environment by means of a communication medium. •  A “virtual reality” is defined as a real or simulated environment in which a perceiver experiences telepresence.
  11. 11. David Zeltzer’s AIP Cube ! Autonomy – User can to react to events and stimuli. ! Interaction – User can interact with objects and environment. ! Presence – User feels immersed through sensory input and output channels Interaction Autonomy Presence VR Zeltzer, D. (1992). Autonomy, interaction, and presence. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 1(1), 127-132.
  12. 12. First VR Experience • “This is so real..” • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAC5SeNH8jw
  13. 13. Key Technologies • Autonomy •  Head tracking, body input •  Intelligent systems • Interaction •  User input devices, HCI • Presence •  Graphics/audio/multisensory output •  Multisensory displays •  Visual, audio, haptic, olfactory, etc
  14. 14. Types of VR 1 5
  15. 15. HISTORY OF VR
  16. 16. Early History (30,000 BC - ) The history of VR is rooted in human’s first attempts to reproduce the world around them
  17. 17. 1800’s – Capturing Reality • Panoramas (1790s) •  Immersive paintings • Photography (1820-30s) •  Oldest surviving photo (Niépce, 1826) • Stereo imagery (1830s) •  Wheatstone (1832) •  Brewster (1851) • Movies (1870s) •  Muybridge (1878) •  Roundhay Garden Scene (1888)
  18. 18. Stereo Viewers Wheatstone (1832) Brewster (1860)
  19. 19. Viewmaster (1939)
  20. 20. 1900s – Interactive Experiences • Early Simulators (<1960s) •  Flight simulation •  Sensorama (1955) • Early HMDs (1960s) •  Philco, Ivan Sutherland • Military + University Research (1970-80s) •  US Airforce, NASA, MIT, UNC • First Commercial Wave (1980-90s) •  VPL, Virtual i-O, Division, Virtuality •  VR Arcades, Virtual Boy
  21. 21. Ivan Sutherland HMD (1968) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtwZXGprxag
  22. 22. Early Experimenters (1950’s – 80’s) Helig 1956 Sutherland 1965 Furness 1970’s
  23. 23. The First Wave (1980’s – 90’s) NASA 1989 VPL 1990’s Virtuality 1990’s
  24. 24. Desktop VR - 1995 •  Expensive - $150,000+ •  2 million polys/sec •  VGA HMD – 30 Hz •  Magnetic tracking
  25. 25. Rise of Commercial VR Companies •  W Industries/Virtuality (1985 - 97) •  Location based entertainment •  Virtuality VR Arcades •  Division (1989 – 1998) •  Turn key VR systems •  Visual programming tools •  Virtual i-O (1993 -1997) •  Inexpensive gamer HMDs •  Sense8 (1990 - 1998) •  WorldToolKit, WorldUp •  VR authoring tools
  26. 26. • April 2007 Computer World • VR Voted 7th on of 21 biggest flops •  MS Bob #1
  27. 27. Second Wave (2010 - ) • Palmer Luckey •  HMD hacker •  Mixed Reality Lab (MxR) • Oculus Rift (2011 - ) •  2012 - $2.4 million kickstarter •  2014 - $2B acquisition FaceBook •  $350 USD, 110o FOV
  28. 28. •  sddg
  29. 29. Oculus Rift Sony Morpheus HTC/Valve Vive 2016 - Rise of Consumer HMDs
  30. 30. Desktop VR 2016 • Graphics Desktop • $1,500 USD • >4 Billion poly/sec • $600 HMD • 1080x1200, 90Hz • Optical tracking • Room scale
  31. 31. HTC Vive •  Room scale tracking •  Gesture input devices
  32. 32. Example Vive App – Tilt Brush https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijukZmYFX-0
  33. 33. Computer Based vs. Mobile VR
  34. 34. Mobile VR: Google Cardboard • Released 2014 (Google 20% project) • >5 million shipped/given away • Easy to use developer tools + =
  35. 35. Multiple Mobile VR Viewers Available
  36. 36. THE BUSINESS OF VR
  37. 37. Gartner Hype Cycle (2016)
  38. 38. Gartner Hype Cycle (2016)
  39. 39. Companies •  sdfa
  40. 40. AR/VR Investments •  > $1 Billion USD from VCs, > 120 deals in US alone
  41. 41. HMD Sales •  asdf
  42. 42. Market Size
  43. 43. AR / VR Market Size •  sadf
  44. 44. •  In 2016 – 46m possible desktop VR users vs. 400 m mobile VR users •  https://thoughts.ishuman.co/vr-will-be-mobile-11529fabf87c#.vfcjzy1vf
  45. 45. •  zxcvz
  46. 46. Potential for Disruption (BDMI) •  asD
  47. 47. Why 2016 won’t be like 1996 • It’s not just VR anymore • Huge amount of investment • Inexpensive hardware platforms • Easy to use content creation tools • New devices for input and output • Proven use cases – no more Hype! • Most important: Focus on User Experience
  48. 48. Conclusion •  Virtual Reality has a long history •  > 50 years of HMDs, simulators •  Key elements for VR were in place by early 1990’s •  Displays, tracking, input, graphics •  Strong support from military, government, universities •  First commercial wave failed in late 1990’s •  Too expensive, bad user experience, poor technology, etc •  We are now in second commercial wave •  Better experience, Affordable hardware •  Large commercial investment, Significant installed user base •  Will Virtual Reality be a commercial success this time?
  49. 49. APPLICATIONS OF VR
  50. 50. Types of VR Experiences • Immersive Spaces • 360 Panorama’s/Movies • High visual quality • Limited interactivity • Changing viewpoint orientation • Immersive Experiences • 3D graphics • Lower visual quality • High interactivity • Movement in space • Interact with objects
  51. 51. Immersive Panorama •  High quality 360 image or video surrounding user •  User can turn head to see different views •  Fixed position
  52. 52. Example Applications • VRSE – Storytelling for VR •  http://vrse.com/ •  High quality 360 VR content • New York Times VR Experience •  NYTVR application •  Documentary experiences • Vrideo •  http://vrideo.com/ •  Streamed immersive movies
  53. 53. Applications: Virtual Tours • Visualise architectural diagrams • Tools such as Autodesk, Revit supporting VR • Metricon, 3D tours
  54. 54. Demo: Metricon VR Tours •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vN16M2RZ8k4
  55. 55. Applications: Games and Entertainment •  100s of games
  56. 56. Star Wars Trials On Tatooine VR Game •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zb2HTngc8xE
  57. 57. 100’s of Google Play Cardboard apps
  58. 58. Applications: Sports and Entertainment • www.Nexvr.com • Live streaming events • NBA Basketball VR • (1 game per week) • US Open Tennis VR • Live Nation concerts
  59. 59. Virtual Campus Tour • Current undergraduate student project • Captured hundereds 360 photos • Custom menus and navigation • Allowing remote experience of facilities
  60. 60. Applications: Architectural Visualizations • Combined virtual and real imagery • Revit architectual diagrams • Incorporated Street photography • Available today from app store
  61. 61. Applications: Medical • Virtual Reality in Clinical Applications • Acute and Chronic Pain Modification • Phobias, Post-traumatic stress disorder • Eating disorders • Benefits • Low cost • Repeatable
  62. 62. How do these systems work? • Phobias • Repeated experience reduces fear and anxiety • Wound dressing • Distraction • Lower pain self report compared to opiates • Chronic pain • Illusion based systems
  63. 63. Application: Chronic Neck Pain •Injuries happen to everyone, for some pain persists after injury healing •1 in 5 Australians suffer chronic pain •Current Treatments provide no long term benefit, AND often cause further complications. •Science suggests these methods don’t target the main contributor: the brain. •Pain with movement depends on perceived, not actual movement (Harvie, Smith et al. 2015). •Shows real time manipulation of pain using MoOVi
  64. 64. Application: Virtual Training • Virtual Dissection • Cadaver lab • OH&S Training tools (Forklift) • Learning benefits • Easily repeatable • No harm to specimen • No exposure to chemicals • http://www.tactustech.com
  65. 65. TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING VR EXPERIENCES
  66. 66. Capturing Panoramas • Stitching photos together •  Image Composite Editor (Microsoft) •  AutoPano (Kolor) • Using 360 camera •  Ricoh Theta-S •  Fly360
  67. 67. Capturing 360 images Kodac 360 Fly 360 Gear 360 Theta S Nikon LG 360 Pointgrey Ladybug Panono 360 Bublcam
  68. 68. 360 Images with Smartphone •  Cardboard Camera •  Capture 360 panoramas •  S3tch together images on phone •  View in VR on Cardboard
  69. 69. What You Need • Cardboard Viewer/VR Viewer •  https://www.google.com/get/cardboard/ • Smart phone •  Android/iOS • Authoring Tools/SDK •  Google VR SDK •  Unity/Unreal game engine •  Non programming tools • Content •  3D models, video, images, sounds
  70. 70. Software Tools • Low level SDKs •  Need programming ability •  Java, C#, C++, etc •  Example: Google VR SDK (iOS, Android) •  https://developers.google.com/vr/ • Game Engines •  Powerful, need scripting ability • Unity - https://unity3d.com/ • Unreal - https://www.unrealengine.com/vr •  Combine with VR plugins (HMDs, input devices) •  Google VR Unity plugin
  71. 71. Unity Interface
  72. 72. Developing Software • Unity Game Engine • Unreal Game Engine • Asstore access (not just for developers) • Comprehensive tools to support • Physics • Lighting effects • Animations • Colliders • Scripts • Audio • Particle systems (smoke, fog..) • 
  73. 73. Tools for Non-Programmers •  Focus on Design, ease of use •  Visual Programming, content arrangement •  Examples •  Insta-VR – 360 panoramas •  http://www.instavr.co/ •  Vizor – VR on the Web •  http://vizor.io/ •  A-frame – HTML based •  https://aframe.io/ •  ENTiTi – Both AR and VR authoring •  http://www.wakingapp.com/ •  Eon Creator – Drag and drop tool for AR/VR •  http://www.eonreality.com/eon-creator/
  74. 74. InstaVR (Web Based) • http://www.instavr.co/ • Development flow • Capture 360 photos • Upload to web • Add content flow • Add links, hotspots • Publish to platform: • Android, IOS, Gear VR, Web, • Daydream, Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, Playstation VR
  75. 75. Demo: InstaVR •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qk7CxZ0yB2s
  76. 76. VR RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
  77. 77. Areas for VR Research • Display •  Wide field of view, new display technologies • Tracking •  Precise tracking, wide area • Interaction •  Natural gesture interaction, human factors • Authoring Tools •  Content capture, authoring in VR • Applications •  Collaboration, large scale VR
  78. 78. Bare Hands •  Using computer vision to track bare hand input •  Creates compelling sense of Presence, natural interaction •  Challenges need to be solved •  Not having sense of touch •  Line of sight required to sensor •  Fatigue from holding hands in front of sensor
  79. 79. Example: Leap Motion •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QD4qQBL0X80
  80. 80. Eye Tracking •  Technology •  Shine IR light into eye and look for reflections •  Advantages •  Provides natural hands-free input •  Gaze provides cues as to user attention •  Can be combined with other input technologies
  81. 81. Example: FOVE VR Headset •  Eye tracker integrated into VR HMD •  Gaze driven user interface, foveated rendering •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dwdzPaqsDY
  82. 82. Pedestrian Devices • Pedestrian input in VR •  Walking/running in VR • Virtuix Omni •  Special shoes •  http://www.virtuix.com • Cyberith Virtualizer •  Socks + slippery surface •  http://cyberith.com
  83. 83. Cyberith Virtualizer Demo •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R8lmf3OFrms
  84. 84. Social VR •  Facebook Social Virtual Reality, AltspaceVR •  Bringing Avatars into VR space •  Natural social interaction
  85. 85. Demo: Facebook Social VR •  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W71o4RbckNA
  86. 86. CONCLUSIONS
  87. 87. Conclusions • Virtual Reality has long history • 60 years of experimentation • Recent VR explosion • Desktop VR, mobile VR • Rapidly growing market • Many areas for commercial application • Significant Research Opportunities • Collaboration, applications, display, interaction
  88. 88. DEMONSTRATIONS
  89. 89. Hands on Demonstrations •  HTC Vive •  PC Based VR •  Wide area tracking •  Two handed input •  Google Cardboard •  Mobile VR •  iOS/Android applications •  Gear VR •  Mobile VR •  Improved Tracking •  Touch pad input
  90. 90. Google Cardboard Demonstration Step 2: - Search for a location - I chose “Brighton Beach” - Click “red dot” Step 3: - Select from available - 360 images and click Step 4: - Click on cardboard icon - Place in viewer Step 1: Download “Street View” from Apple or Play store
  91. 91. @marknb00 mark.billinghurst@unisa.edu.au ross.smith@unisa.edu.au

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