Lifespan Development Through the stages The lifespan approach
Erikson’s Theory of development
Marcia (1966) proposed four distinct  ego identity statuses  applied to adolescents, derived from Erikson's theory. Achiev...
Impact  <ul><li>“ Foreclosers&quot; tend to have closer relationships with parents.  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Identity diff...
Levinson on development  <ul><li>1.   Childhood and adolescence : birth to age-twenty  </li></ul><ul><li>Early childhood t...
Information Processing Theory <ul><li>This theory examines how children focus their attention, encode information, store i...
Ecological Systems Theory <ul><li>Bronfenbrenner argues that children develop within a system of complex human relationshi...
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory <ul><li>Lev Vygotsky stressed that dialogues between children and others fuels development...
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory (cont’d) <ul><li>As the child learns, adults provides less help or make the task slightly ...
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory (cont’d) <ul><li>The difference between where a child is and where he or she might be with...
Theory of Mind <ul><li>A recent focus of developmental psychology is the theory of mind </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of mind i...
Thought in a Social Context <ul><li>Projects such as  Head Start  try to raise the social and educational competency of di...
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Cog lifespan 10 final overview (1)

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Cog lifespan 10 final overview (1)

  1. 1. Lifespan Development Through the stages The lifespan approach
  2. 2. Erikson’s Theory of development
  3. 3. Marcia (1966) proposed four distinct ego identity statuses applied to adolescents, derived from Erikson's theory. Achieving an identity occurs if a person has experienced a crisis and made a commitment. If the young person accepts what is given by parents or some social institution, and does not feel that this conflicts with own identity, this is called &quot;foreclosure.&quot; Sometimes teenagers deliberately postpone making any lasting commitment, a &quot;moratorium&quot; phase, with identify put on hold. Finally, there is the &quot;identity diffuse&quot; person who experiences neither an identity crisis nor a commitment to a definite personal identity. This has been called &quot;a commitment to not making a commitment.&quot;
  4. 4. Impact <ul><li>“ Foreclosers&quot; tend to have closer relationships with parents. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Identity diffuse&quot; students tend to regard parents as indifferent or rejecting and are more likely to respond to peer pressures </li></ul>
  5. 5. Levinson on development <ul><li>1.   Childhood and adolescence : birth to age-twenty </li></ul><ul><li>Early childhood transition by age three </li></ul><ul><li>2.   Early adulthood : age seventeen to forty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early adult transition-seventeen to twenty-two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entering the adult world-twenty-two to twenty-eight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age thirty transition-twenty-eight to thirty-three </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settling down-thirty-three to forty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3.   Middle adulthood : age forty to sixty-five  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Midlife transition-forty to forty-five </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entering middle adulthood-forty-five to fifty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age fifty transition-fifty to fifty-five </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culmination of middle adulthood-fifty-five to sixty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4.   Late adulthood : age sixty on </li></ul><ul><li>Late adult transition-sixty to sixty-five </li></ul>
  6. 6. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>This theory examines how children focus their attention, encode information, store it in memory and retrieve it, and monitor those activities </li></ul><ul><li>Children become more sophisticated by building specific knowledge bases </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ecological Systems Theory <ul><li>Bronfenbrenner argues that children develop within a system of complex human relationships that encompass immediate environments such as the family and larger environments such as communities </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory <ul><li>Lev Vygotsky stressed that dialogues between children and others fuels development </li></ul><ul><li>Private speech is talking to oneself to guide behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Private speech helps a child understand the world and that of others </li></ul>
  9. 9. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory (cont’d) <ul><li>As the child learns, adults provides less help or make the task slightly harder </li></ul><ul><li>This engages the child in more complex reasoning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory (cont’d) <ul><li>The difference between where a child is and where he or she might be with the appropriate assistance is called the zone of proximal development </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding is when an adult sets up a structure to help a child solve a problem </li></ul>
  11. 11. Theory of Mind <ul><li>A recent focus of developmental psychology is the theory of mind </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of mind is an understanding of mental states such as feelings and intentions, and their causal role in behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>This understanding develops around age 3 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Thought in a Social Context <ul><li>Projects such as Head Start try to raise the social and educational competency of disadvantaged preschoolers </li></ul><ul><li>Head Start began as a program to break the poverty cycle by raising the social and educational competency of economically disadvantaged preschool children </li></ul>

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