Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development


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Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

  1. 1. Erikson’s PsychosocialStages of Development EDU105
  2. 2. Erik EriksonBorn Erik SalomonsenGerman DevelopmentalPsychologistJune 15, 1902 (Frankfurt Main,Germany) – May 12, 1994(Harwich, Cape Cod,Massachusetts)
  3. 3. Erik Salomonsen
  4. 4. INTRO TO THE 8PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Psychosocial – psychological (or the root, “psycho” relating to the mind, brain, personality, etc.) & social (external relationships and environment) Erikson’s theory was greatly influenced by Sigmund Freud
  5. 5. INTRO TO THE 8PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTHis theory is a basis for broad or complexdiscussion and analysis of personality andbehavior, and also for understanding andfacilitating development – of self and others.Each stage involves a “psychosocial crisis” of twoopposing emotional forces
  6. 6. INTRO TO THE 8PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT2 DISPOSITIONS:*SYNTONIC – POSITIVE*DYSTONIC – NEGATIVEIf both dispositions are not managed well, we maydevelop MALADAPTATION & MALIGNANCYVIRTUES are being carried if a stage is managedwell
  7. 7. BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUST Stage 1 Infancy Too Much Trust Too Much MistrustMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis Malignancy Sensory Trust Vs. Mistrust WithdrawalMaladjustmen t Virtue Hope
  8. 8. BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUSTINFANT STAGE: Birth to 8 monthsGOAL: to develop trust withoutcompletely eliminating the capacityfor mistrustDeveloping trust is the first task ofthe ego, and it is never complete.
  9. 9. BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUSTTRUST – Firm belief in reliability,truth, ability, or strength of someoneor something.MISTRUST – State of beingsuspicious; lack of trust
  10. 10. BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUST MALADAPTATION: SENSORY MALADJUSTMENT –Overly trusting MALIGNANCY: WITHDRAWAL – Characterized bydepression, paranoia & psychosis
  11. 11. BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUST VIRTUE: HOPE – strong belief that whenthings are not going well, they willwork out well in the end.
  12. 12. AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT Stage 2 Early Childhood Too Much Autonomy Too Much Shame and DoubtMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis MalignancyImpulsiveness Autonomy Vs. Compulsiveness Shame and Doubt Virtue Will
  13. 13. AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBTTODDLER STAGE: 18 months to 3yearsGOAL: to achieve autonomywhile minimizing shame anddoubt.
  14. 14. AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBTAUTONOMY – IndependenceSHAME – A painful feeling ofhumiliation or distress caused bythe consciousness of wrong orfoolish behavior.DOUBT – Feeling of uncertainty orlack of conviction
  15. 15. AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBTShame develops with the childsself-consciousness.Doubt has to do with having afront and back – a "behind"subject to its own rules. Left overdoubt may become paranoia.
  16. 16. AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT MALADAPTATION: IMPULSIVENESS – Sort ofshameless willfulness that leadsyou in later childhood and evenadulthood, to jump into thingswithout proper consideration ofyour abilities.
  17. 17. AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT MALIGNANCY: COMPULSIVENESS – A personfeels as if their entire beingrides on everything they do,and so everything, must bedone perfectly
  18. 18. AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT VIRTUE: WILL POWER – Controllingdeliberately exerted to dosomething or to restrain one’sown impulses.
  19. 19. INITIATIVE VS GUILT Stage 3 Early Childhood Too Much Initiative Stage Too Much GuiltMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis MalignancyRuthlessness Initiative Vs. Guilt Inhibition Virtue Courage
  20. 20. INITIATIVE VS GUILTEarly childhood stage: Ages 3 or4 to 5 or 6GOAL: to learn initiative withouttoo much guilt.
  21. 21. INITIATIVE VS GUILT INITIATIVE – a positive response to the world’s challenges, taking on responsibilities, learning new skills, feeling purposeful. – the attempt tomake that non-reality a reality.
  22. 22. INITIATIVE VS GUILTThis stage is a time for play, notfor formal education.OEDIPAL CRISIS – the reluctance achild feels in relinquishing his/hercloseness to the opposite sexparents.
  23. 23. INITIATIVE VS GUILTRUTHLESNESS – to be heartless orunfeeling or be “without mercy.”INHIBITION – too much guilt.COURAGE – the capacity for actiondespite a clear understanding ofyour limitations and past failings
  24. 24. INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY Stage 4 School AgeToo Much Industry Stage Too Much InferiorityMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis Malignancy Narrow Industry Vs. Inertia Virtuosity Inferiority Virtue Competency
  25. 25. INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY6 – 12 years oldThey must learn the feeling ofsuccess, whether it is in schoolor on the playground, academic,or social.
  26. 26. INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITYINFERIORITY – CompetenceJust a touch of inferioritykeeps us sensible and humble.
  27. 27. IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION Stage 5 Adolescence Too Much Identity Too Much Role ConfusionMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis Malignancy Fanaticism Identity Vs. Role Repudiation Confusion Virtue Fidelity
  28. 28. IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSIONPuberty to ages 18 0r 20GOAL: to achieve EGOIDENTITY and avoid ROLECONFUSION
  29. 29. IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSIONEGO IDENTITY – knowing whoyou are and how you fit in tothe rest of the society.PSYCHOSOCIAL MORATORIUM– taking a little “time out”
  30. 30. IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSIONPSYCHOSOCIAL MORATORIUM– one of Erikson’s suggestionsfor adolescence in our society.We need to dream a little.
  31. 31. IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSIONA fanatic believes that his wayis the only way.REPUDIATION – state ofrejection
  32. 32. INTIMACY VS ISOLATION Stage 6 Young Adulthood Too Much Intimacy Too Much IsolationMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis Malignancy Promiscuity Intimacy Vs. Exclusion Isolation Virtue Love
  33. 33. INTIMACY VS ISOLATIONYoung Adulthood: 18 to 30 yearsoldGOAL: to achieve some degreeof intimacy, as opposedremaining in isolation.
  34. 34. INTIMACY VS ISOLATIONINTIMACY – ability to be close toothers, as a lover, a friend, andas a particular participant insociety.“Fear of commitment” – anexample of immaturity
  35. 35. INTIMACY VS ISOLATION MALADAPTATION: PROMISCUITY – The tendency tobecome intimate too freely, tooeasy, and without any depth toyour intimacy.
  36. 36. INTIMACY VS ISOLATION MALIGNANCY: EXCLUSION – The tendency toisolate oneself from love,friendship and community, and todevelop a certain hatefulness incompensation for one’sloneliness.
  37. 37. INTIMACY VS ISOLATIONVIRTUE:LOVE – Being able to put asidedifferences and antagonismsthrough “mutuality ofdevotion.”
  38. 38. GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION Stage 7 Middle Adulthood Too Much Stagnation Too Much GenerativityMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis MalignancyOverextension Generativity Vs. Rejectivity Stagnation Virtue Caring
  39. 39. GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATIONMiddle Adulthood – the timewhen we are actively involved inraising children.GOAL: to cultivate the properbalance of generativity andstagnation.
  40. 40. GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATIONGENERATIVITY – an extension oflove into the future.STAGNATION – self absorption,caring for no one.
  41. 41. GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATIONThe stagnant person STOPSto be a reproductivemember of the society.
  42. 42. GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATIONMALADAPTATION:OVEREXTENSION – Somepeople try to be generative thatthey no longer allow time forthemselves, for rest andrelaxation.
  43. 43. GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION MALIGNANCY: REJECTIVITY – Too littlegenerativity and too muchstagnation and you are nolonger participating in orcontributing to society.
  44. 44. EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR Stage 8 Late Adulthood Too Much Ego Integrity Too Much DespairMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis MalignancyPresumption Ego Integrity Vs. Disdain Despair Virtue Wisdom
  45. 45. EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIREGO INTEGRITY – Coming toterms with your life, and therebycoming to terms with the end oflife.DESPAIR – The complete loss orabsence of hope.
  46. 46. EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIRLate adulthood/Maturity/Old ageBegins sometime aroundretirement, around 60GOAL: to develop ego integritywith a minimal amount ofdespair.
  47. 47. EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIRWomen go throughsometimes dramaticmenopause; Men often findthey can no longer “rise to theoccasion.”
  48. 48. EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIROlder people becomedepressed, spiteful,paranoid, hypochondriacal,or developing the patternsof senility with or withoutphysical bases.
  49. 49. EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR MALADAPTATION: PRESUMPTION – Happens whena person “presumes” egointegrity without actually facingthe difficulties of old age.
  50. 50. EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR MALIGNANCY: DISDAIN – A contempt oflife, one’s own, or anyone.
  51. 51. EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR VIRTUE: WISDOM – Someone whoapproaches death withoutfear.
  52. 52. “It is human to have a long childhood; it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuoso out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him.”— Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994)