Erikson stages


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Erikson stages

  1. 1. Stages of Psychosocial Development: Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt As Developed by Erik Erikson Presented by Teresa Christian CHED-340 Spiritual Formation and Discipleship
  2. 2. There are 8 stages listed by Erikson in the development of human beings.
  3. 3. The particular stage this presentation will focus on is “Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt.” This stage is recognized in early childhood, from approximately ages 1 ½ to 3 years. This is an exciting time of growth and learning opportunities, with unique challenges for parents and teachers alike.
  4. 4. Education in Early Childhood People may wonder exactly how important is formal education for a child aged 1 ½ to 3 years. Consider the following:  They are learning constantly by the examples set by people around them.  They are very curious and eager to learn.  They are beginning to understand such social norms as making friends, sharing, and listening.  They love stories and imaginative play.
  5. 5. Erikson vs. Piaget According to our text, Teaching for Spiritual Growth, Jean Piaget’s concept is that children are taught with content that is appropriate to the way they think. An educator must be adaptable when teaching young children, attempting to present material with the sense of order that is best suited for them. When considering Erikson’s proposed stage, a child in in the autonomy vs. shame and doubt stage must be permitted to learn without criticism, which is a difficult task if one is teaching outside of the child’s mental capacities.
  6. 6. Preoperational Period Piaget’s “Stages of Cognitive Development” seem to work in concert with Erikson. At the ages being presented, Piaget would have children in the “preoperational period,” in which mental functions are being more fully developed. Children are able to grasp concepts through symbolism and imaginative play.
  7. 7. Erikson vs. Kohlberg Lawrence Kohlberg championed the “CognitiveDevelopmental Approach” to moral reasoning in particular. He developed six stages of moral development, beginning with “Heteronomous Morality.” He reasoned that at this stage in a child’s life the basic goal is to avoid consequences, so therefore the child obeys without any sense of actual justice. A very young child who is becoming more aware of his surroundings is at a crucial stage for learning behavior and consequences.
  8. 8. A child on the older spectrum of the autonomy vs shame and doubt could easily pick on the fact that sin is wrong and must be punished. While teachers should not go into graphic detail about the crucifixion, we can teach that Jesus took our punishment for the bad things we have done. Young children can also learn that attending church is a positive thing where they can make friends, play, and learn simple truths. However, they are also capable of understanding that there are times to sit quietly and listen and other times during which they can talk and play.
  9. 9. Erikson vs Fowler James W. Fowler is highly regarding in his field of the Psychology of Religion. While Fowler was strongly influenced by his friendship with Kohlberg, he developed his own “Six Stages of Faith” through which people progress. Young children are placed into stage one, the “intuitive/projective faith” stage. Agreeing with Piaget, Fowler states that at this stage children learn faith matters through symbols, stories, and their imaginations.
  10. 10. Attitudes Matter One very important aspect of stage one of faith development is the attitude of the parents toward matters of faith. A child at this young age is highly influenced by their parents’ words and actions regarding church and teachings about God. A child easily picks on what is happening in his environment and will respond according to what he sees and hears. If church attendance is spoken of and presented as a positive in the family’s life, the child will exhibit a positive attitude toward attending church and Sunday School settings.
  11. 11. Our Lord Jesus Christ encouraged the teaching of children when He walked the earth. He also modeled various teaching styles, including stories, symbols, analogies, asking questions, and lectures. He took time to bless the children brought to Him and did not turn them away.
  12. 12. Ideas for Teaching Young Children  As the children arrive to class, greet them with smiles and softly spoken yet enthusiastic words.  Show them to a play area where they can engage in play with other children and adults.  Allow playtime to continue for approximately 15 minutes, then call the children together for “circle time.”  Ask the children to sit down and listen while you show them pictures and props depicting a message from the Bible. Be creative!
  13. 13.  Circle time should only last about 3-5 minutes since most preschoolers’ attention spans are only about one minute for each year of age.  Following circle time, allow the children to talk with you and the other adults as you ask them questions about the story you just presented. This should time should only last about 5 minutes.  Have the children sit at a table or on the floor in a different area, if possible, for a light snack of crackers (such as Gold Fish or Teddy Grahams) and juice or water. Remember to say a short prayer of thankfulness for the food! Snack time will take about 10 minutes, including clean up.
  14. 14.  Sing songs with hand motions to get the children up and moving again. This can last for as long as you choose, but probably no more than 10 minutes.  Give the children the opportunity to color a picture or put a puzzle together while talking about the day’s lesson. Encourage the use of fine motor and developing cognitive skills through these activities until their parents arrive to pick them up.
  15. 15. Christian educators are tasked with a huge responsibility. Few churches have trained educators throughout their children’s department, although there may be a few brave women and men who enter a traditional school classroom Monday through Friday and small group on Sunday! However, with a few hours of simple, basic training on how to teach children according to their levels of learning ability, any teacher can improve upon the class experience.
  16. 16. How Important is Children’s Ministry?
  17. 17. Works Cited  Downs, Perry G. Teaching for Spiritual Growth: An Introduction to Christian Education. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1994. Print.  McLeod, Saul. “Erik Erikson.” Simply Psychology. 2008. Web. 12 Oct. 2013.