Published on

Sigmund Freud

Published in: Technology, Self Improvement
1 Comment
1 Like
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. <ul><li>SIGMUND FREUD: SOCIALIZATION as PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>SOC 101 DCCC </li></ul><ul><li>Michael T. Ryan </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>How does Freud explain socialization and self development? </li></ul><ul><li>Through a process of psychosexual development with the following stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. The Oral stage from birth to two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral gratification as the focus for pleasure seeking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parent/child conflict over turn taking and delaying gratification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. The Anal stage from two to four </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anal gratification as the focus for pleasure seeking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parent/child conflict over toilet training </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><ul><li>3. Phallic stage four to seven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of genitals and masturbation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Oedipal and Electra complexes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The young boy competes with his father for the love of the mother </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The young girl competes with her mother for the love of the father </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If resolved successfully the children realize that mom belongs to dad, that dad belongs to mom, and that they will have to get their own dates for New Year’s Eve </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality development is completed: “Child is father to man.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self as processual and product </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><ul><li>4. Latency stage from seven to puberty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The child turns away from emotional development to pursue intellectual development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No parent/child conflicts to resolve </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Genital stage from puberty on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adult sexuality becomes the focus for emotional development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parent/adolescent conflicts over friends, lovers, and whom adolescents want to become as adults </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>STRUCTURE of the PSYCHE </li></ul><ul><li>Freud’s concept of psyche includes three aspects or elements: id/ego/superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “id” is the natural/biological side of the psyche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The id is unconscious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The id is primitive, irrational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The id operates on the ”pleasure principle” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>seeking instant gratification of the actor’s needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially pleasure seeking and aggressive behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The ego is a cultural element in the Psyche that is socially constructed through interactions between parent and child </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ego is conscious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The individual as agent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ego operates on the “reality principle” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the individual wants the benefits of Modern Civilization, she must defer immediate gratification until she “pays her dues,” i.e., work comes before play </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ego is a mediator between: the id and superego and between the individual and society </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The superego is another cultural element that is socially constructed through interactions between parent and child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The superego is unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The operation of culture in the individual” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The superego is formed through the internalization of the authority of the parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The child learns and internalizes the norms, values, and behavioral expectations of her parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The superego is an internal control system that makes social interactions relatively smooth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aka “conscience” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Why is Freud’s work important for sociologists? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociologists have to make some assumptions about psychic processes and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talcott Parsons, eminent functionalist theorist, incorporated Freud’s concepts into his theory of socialization after going through psychoanalysis himself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud is the first scientist to take up the analysis of human sexuality at a time when sex was a taboo topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insights into apparently bizarre forms of sex </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Freud discovered “infantile sexuality” </li></ul><ul><li>Freud emphasized the importance of intimacy between parent and child for normal self development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents combine love and authority as agents of socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relations with parents predispose child for relations with other authority figures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freud also recognized the conflicts structured into family relations </li></ul><ul><li>Freud also recognized that emotional ties were ambivalent relations: love and hate </li></ul><ul><li>Freudian theory can handle deviant as well as conformist behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., New York Judge who extorted his adulterous lover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although, sociologists reject Freud’s claim that most of our behavior stems from deep level unconscious motives </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Freud gives us a conception of personality and socialization that incorporates the interaction of nature and nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Freud also gives us insights into the channeling of pleasure seeking and aggression into socially acceptable activities: work, art, athletics, friendships, etc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aka the process of “sublimation” </li></ul></ul>