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  1. 1. CHAPTER 3.3
  2. 2. MAIN IDEA Children face various social decisions as they grow and progress through the stages of life.
  3. 3. PARENTING STYLES •Diana Baumrind (1971, 1973) observed and interviewed nursery school children and their parents. •Follow-up observations when the children were 8 or 9 led to several conclusions about the impact of three distinct parenting styles on children. -Authoritarian families -Democratic/Authoritative families -Permissive/Laissez-Faire families
  4. 4. PARENTING STYLES CONT. •Authoritarian families: •Parents are the bosses •Parents do think they need to explain their decisions •Child has no right to question parental decisions
  5. 5. PARENTING STYLES CONT. •Democratic or Authoritative families: •Children participate in decisions affecting their lives •Lots of discussion and negotiation •Parents listen to their children •Children can make decisions for themselves • BUT the parents have the right to veto plans
  6. 6. PARENTING STYLES CONT. •Permissive or Laissez-faire families •Basically the children rule themselves •They live by no rules •Parents basically give up and let the children raise themselves
  7. 7. EFFECTS OF PARENTING STYLES •Studies show that “democratic or authoritative families” are most effective •Adolescents are more confident in their values and goals •Comes from 2 things: establishment of limits, and responding to the child warmly and supportively •More likely to make their own decisions with or without advice
  8. 8. CHILD ABUSE Physical Mental Sexual Abuse Negligent Treatment Mistreatment of children under the age of 18 In 2003: 3 million cases of child abuse were reported 906,000 children were confirmed as victims of actual abuse or neglect situations
  9. 9. CHILD ABUSE CONT. Social Problem Most abusive parents were mistreated as children Have little patience Have unrealistic expectations
  10. 10. CHILD ABUSE CONT. Overburdened and stressed parents are more likely to abuse their children Mentally or physically children experience abuse more often because of the stress of taking care of the children Abuse causes many developmental problems such as  Feeling of guilt  Lost of trust  Depression  Anitsocialness
  11. 11. FREUD’S THEORY OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT Sigmund Freud believes that all children are born with powerful and aggressive urges 1. Oral stage…infant pleasures seeking focused on the mouth (ages…first 18 months of life) 2. Anal stage…infant pleasure seeking focused centered on functions of elimination (ages…1.5-3 years) 3. Phallic Stage…infants pleasure seeking focused on the genitals (ages…3-6 years) 4. Latency stage…sexual thoughts repressed, child focuses on developing social and intellectual skills (ages…6 years to puberty) 5. Genital stage…sexual desires renewed, individual seeks relationships with others (age…puberty through adulthood)
  12. 12. ERIKSON’S THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Although he recognized the child’s sexual and aggressive urges he believes that the need for social approval is just as important Psychosocial development- life periods in which individuals goal is to satisfy desires associated with social needs Example  2 year old is delighted with his new found ability to walk, to get into things, to use words and ask questions
  13. 13. LEARNING THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT Both Freud and Erikson stress the emotional dynamics of social development Their theories suggest that learning social rules is altogether different form learning to ride a bicycle or to speak a foreign language Many psychologists disagree
  14. 14. THE COGNITIVE- DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH Cognitive theorists see the child as the shaper Taking their cue from Jean Piaget, they argue that social development is the result of the child’s acting on the environment and trying to make sense out of his experiences.
  15. 15. THE COGNITIVE- DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH CHILD'S GAMES AND PLAY Most children’s games involve role taking. -Mother -Father -Teacher -Storekeeper -Explorer -Rock star -Etc.
  16. 16. THE COGNITIVE- DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH CHILD'S GAMES AND PLAY Role taking allows them to learn about different points of views first hand. Child plays a mother opposite another child plays a whiny, disobedient baby. When she finds herself totally frustrated by the other child’s nagging, she begins to understand why her mother gets mad. You are unable to cook even pretend meal when the baby keep knocking over pots and pans.
  18. 18. KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Stage Orientation Reference Group Pre- Conventional 1 2 Obedience and punishment Instrumental relativist Self Immediate family Conventional 3 4 Good boy/Nice girl Law and order Extended family Self-serving view of society Post- Conventional 5 6 Social contract Universal ethics principle Interactive view of society Balanced cost/benefit analysis of