Other theories of development

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Other theories of development

  1. 1. OTHER THEORIES OFDEVELOPMENT
  2. 2. Is it developmentbefore learning? Orlearning beforedevelopment?
  3. 3. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY Summary: SocialDevelopment Theoryargues that socialinteraction precedesdevelopment;consciousness andcognition are the endproduct of socializationand social behavior. Originator: LevVygotsky (1896-1934).
  4. 4. THREE MAJOR THEMES OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY1. Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. In contrast to Jean Piaget’s understanding of child development (in which development necessarily precedes learning), Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development. He states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).” (Vygotsky, 1978).
  5. 5. THREE MAJOR THEMES OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY2. The More KnowledgeableOther (MKO). The MKOrefers to anyone who has abetter understanding or ahigher ability level than thelearner, with respect to aparticular task, process, orconcept. The MKO isnormally thought of as beinga teacher, coach, or olderadult, but the MKO could alsobe peers, a younger person,or even computers.
  6. 6. THREE MAJOR THEMES OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY3. The Zone of ProximalDevelopment (ZPD). TheZPD is the distancebetween a student’sability to perform a taskunder adult guidance and/or with peer collaborationand the student’s abilitysolving the problemindependently. Accordingto Vygotsky, learningoccurred in this zone.
  7. 7. THREE MAJOR THEMES OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY3. The Zone of ProximalDevelopment (ZPD). TheZPD is the distancebetween a student’sability to perform a taskunder adult guidance and/or with peer collaborationand the student’s abilitysolving the problemindependently. Accordingto Vygotsky, learningoccurred in this zone.
  8. 8. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY According to Vygotsky,humans use tools thatdevelop from a culture, suchas speech and writing, tomediate their socialenvironments. Initiallychildren develop these toolsto serve solely as socialfunctions, ways tocommunicate needs.Vygotsky believed that theinternalization of these toolsled to higher thinking skills.
  9. 9. APPLICATION OF THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY Many schools havetraditionally held a transmissionist orinstructionist model in which a teacheror lecturer ‘transmits’ information tostudents. In contrast, Vygotsky’stheory promotes learning contexts inwhich students play an active role inlearning. Roles of the teacher andstudent are therefore shifted, as ateacher should collaborate with his orher students in order to help facilitatemeaning construction in students.Learning therefore becomes areciprocal experience for the studentsand teacher.
  10. 10. Are youattached?
  11. 11. What isAttachment?
  12. 12. ATTACHMENT THEORY by John Bowlby
  13. 13. ATTACHMENT THEORY∗Attachment is an emotional bond to another person.
  14. 14. ATTACHMENT THEORY∗ Psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194).
  15. 15. ATTACHMENT THEORY∗ earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. According to Bowlby, attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the childs chances of survival.
  16. 16. ATTACHMENT THEORY∗ The central theme of attachment theory is that mothers who are available and responsive to their infants needs establish a sense of security in their children. The infant knows that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world.
  17. 17. COMPONENTS OF ATTACHMENT∗ There are four key components of attachment:∗Safe Haven: When the child feel threatened or afraid, he or she can return to the caregiver for comfort and soothing.
  18. 18. COMPONENTS OF ATTACHMENT∗ There are four key components of attachment:∗ Safe Haven: When the child feel threatened or afraid, he or she can return to the caregiver for comfort and soothing.∗ Secure Base: The caregiver provides a secure and dependable base for the child to explore the world.
  19. 19. COMPONENTS OF ATTACHMENT∗ There are four key components of attachment:∗ Safe Haven: When the child feel threatened or afraid, he or she can return to the caregiver for comfort and soothing.∗ Secure Base: The caregiver provides a secure and dependable base for the child to explore the world.∗ Proximity Maintenance: The child strives to stay near the caregiver, thus keeping the child safe.
  20. 20. COMPONENTS OF ATTACHMENT∗ There are four key components of attachment:∗ Safe Haven: When the child feel threatened or afraid, he or she can return to the caregiver for comfort and soothing.∗ Secure Base: The caregiver provides a secure and dependable base for the child to explore the world.∗ Proximity Maintenance: The child strives to stay near the caregiver, thus keeping the child safe.∗ Separation Distress: When separated from the caregiver, the child will become upset and distressed.
  21. 21. MARY AINSWORTH’S“STRANGE SITUATION”
  22. 22. AINSWORTH’S “STRANGE SITUATION”∗ In her 1970s research, psychologist Mary Ainsworth expanded greatly upon Bowlbys original work. Her groundbreaking "Strange Situation" study revealed the profound effects of attachment on behavior. In the study, researchers observed children between the ages of 12 and 18 months as they responded to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mothers (Ainsworth, 1978).
  23. 23. AINSWORTH’S “STRANGE SITUATION”∗ Based upon the responses the researchers observed, Ainsworth described three major styles of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment and avoidant-insecure attachment. Later, researchers Main and Solomon (1986) added a fourth attachment style called disorganized-insecure attachment based upon their own research. A number of studies since that time have supported Ainsworths attachment styles and have indicated that attachment styles also have an impact on behaviors later in life.
  24. 24. CHARACTERISTICS OF SECURE ATTACHMENT∗ Securely attached children exhibit distress when separated from caregivers and are happy when their caregiver returns. Remember, these children feel secure and able to depend on their adult caregivers. When the adult leaves, the child may be upset but he or she feels assured that the parent or caregiver will return.∗ When frightened, securely attached children will seek comfort from caregivers. These children know their parent or caregiver will provide comfort and reassurance, so they are comfortable seeking them out in times of need.
  25. 25. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMBIVALENT ATTACHMENT Ambivalently attached children usuallybecome very distressed when a parent leaves.This attachment style is considered relativelyuncommon, affecting an estimated 7-15% of U.S.children. Research suggests that ambivalentattachment is a result of poor maternalavailability. These children cannot depend ontheir mother (or caregiver) to be there when thechild is in need.
  26. 26. CHARACTERISTICS OF AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT Children with an avoidant attachment tendto avoid parents or caregivers. When offered achoice, these children will show no preferencebetween a caregiver and a complete stranger.Research has suggested that this attachmentstyle might be a result of abusive or neglectfulcaregivers. Children who are punished for relyingon a caregiver will learn to avoid seeking help inthe future.
  27. 27. PROBLEMS WITH ATTACHMENT∗ What happens to children who do not form secure attachments? Research suggests that failure to form secure attachments early in life can have a negative impact on behavior in later childhood and throughout the life. Children diagnosed with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD) or post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently display attachment problems, possibly due to early abuse, neglect or trauma. Clinicians suggest that children adopted after the age of six months have a higher risk of attachment problems.
  28. 28. PROBLEMS WITH ATTACHMENT While attachment styles displayed inadulthood are not necessarily the same as thoseseen in infancy, research indicates that earlyattachments can have a serious impact on laterrelationships. For example, those who aresecurely attached in childhood tend to have goodself-esteem, strong romantic relationships andthe ability to self-disclose to others. As adults,they tend to have healthy, happy and lastingrelationships.
  29. 29. Does environmentaffectsdevelopment?
  30. 30. ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORY by Urie Bronfenbrenner
  31. 31. ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORYUrie Bronfenbrenner was generallyregarded as one of the worlds leadingscholars in the field of developmentalpsychology. His ecological systems theoryholds that development reflects theinfluence of several environmentalsystems, and it identifies fiveenvironmental systems that an individualinteracts with.
  32. 32. FIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS1. Microsystem: Refersto the institutions andgroups that mostimmediately and directlyimpact the childsdevelopment including:family, school, religiousinstitutions,neighborhood, andpeers.
  33. 33. FIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS2. Mesosystem: Refers to relations betweenmicrosystems or connections between contexts.Examples are the relation of family experiencesto school experiences, school experiences tochurch experiences, and family experiences topeer experiences. For example, children whoseparents have rejected them may have difficultydeveloping positive relations with teachers.
  34. 34. FIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS3. Exosystem: Involves links between a socialsetting in which the individual does not have anactive role and the individuals immediatecontext. For example, a husbands or childsexperience at home may be influenced by amothers experiences at work. The mother mightreceive a promotion that requires more travel,which might increase conflict with the husbandand change patterns of interaction with the child.
  35. 35. FIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS4. Macrosystem: Describes the culture in whichindividuals live. Cultural contexts include developing andindustrialized countries, socioeconomic status, poverty,and ethnicity. A child, his or her parent, his or her school,and his or her parents workplace are all part of a largecultural context. Members of a cultural group share acommon identity, heritage, and values. Themacrosystem evolves over time, because eachsuccessive generation may change the macrosystem,leading to their development in a unique macrosystem.
  36. 36. FIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS5. Chronosystem: The patterning of environmentalevents and transitions over the life course, as well associohistorical circumstances. For example, divorces areone transition. Researchers have found that thenegative effects of divorce on children often peak in thefirst year after the divorce. By two years after thedivorce, family interaction is less chaotic and morestable. As an example of sociohistorical circumstances,consider how the opportunities for women to pursue acareer have increased during the last thirty years."
  37. 37. ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORY∗The persons own biology may be considered part of the microsystem; thus the theory has recently sometimes been called "Bio-Ecological Systems Theory."
  38. 38. ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORY∗ Per this theoretical construction, each system contains roles, norms and rules which may shape psychological development. For example, an inner- city family faces many challenges which an affluent family in a gated community does not, and vice versa. The inner-city family is more likely to experience environmental hardships, like crime and squalor. On the other hand the sheltered family is more likely to lack the nurturing support of extended family.
  39. 39. ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORY∗ Since its publication in 1979, Bronfenbrenners major statement of this theory, The Ecology of Human Development has had widespread influence on the way psychologists and others approach the study of human beings and their environments. As a result of his groundbreaking work in "human ecology", these environments — from the family to economic and political structures — have come to be viewed as part of the life course from childhood through adulthood.
  40. 40. ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORY∗There are many different theories related to human development. The ecological theory emphasizes environmental factors as playing the major role to development.
  41. 41. ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORY∗Both the environment and biology influence the childs development.∗The environment affects the child and the child influences the environment.
  42. 42. Does the brain affectsdevelopment?
  43. 43. Does the brain affectsdevelopment?Is the brain a flexibleorgan?
  44. 44. STRUCTURAL COGNITIVE MODIFIABILITY by Reuven Feuerstein
  45. 45. STRUCTURAL COGNITIVE MODIFIABILITY Dr. Reuven Feuerstein, an IsraeliPsychologist, has developed the theory of“Structural Cognitive Modifiability”. Accordingto this theory, the brain is a highly flexible organand can, with suitable assistance, modify itself inamazing ways. He has demonstrated how thistheory can be used to develop the essential“cognitive structures” required for higher levelthinking, working with children who have hadbrain injuries, birth defects or abuse.
  46. 46. STRUCTURAL COGNITIVE MODIFIABILITY - APPLICATION We want to help a child to createconnections in their brains. When westimulate a child by providing him or herwith a sound, that child will demonstratethat the sound has been heard by areaction. If the reaction involves the eyeslooking around then the child is trying toassociate the auditory stimulation withsomething.
  47. 47. STRUCTURAL COGNITIVE MODIFIABILITY - APPLICATION You can help the child to make the association. Ifyou are using a stethoscope then you should positionyourself direction in front of the child and as you emit asound, say humming a tune, you should also make somekind of shape with your mouth. Then do this at varyingdistances from the child. If you see the child trying tomimic your mouth position, you will have evidence thatthe child is making a connection. If you see an attemptto mimic what you do with your mouth, then repeat thatmany times-100 is not too many times!
  48. 48. Does certainsystems relatedto development?
  49. 49. MODULAR THEORY OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT by Judith Rich Harris
  50. 50. MODULAR THEORY OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT∗ Proposed by Judith Rich Harris∗ A relationship system that allows us to distinguish family from strangers and tell individuals apart.
  51. 51. MODULAR THEORY OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT∗ Proposed by Judith Rich Harris∗ A socialization system that helps us to become members of a group and absorb the groups culture.
  52. 52. MODULAR THEORY OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT∗ Proposed by Judith Rich Harris∗ A status system that enables us to acquire self-knowledge by measuring ourselves against others.
  53. 53. Why humansstill exist today?
  54. 54. SPIRAL DYNAMICS OR EMERGENT CYCLICAL LEVEL OF EXISTENCE THEORY by Clare W. Graves
  55. 55. SPIRAL DYNAMICS OR EMERGENT CYCLICAL LEVEL OF EXISTENSE THEORY Spiral Dynamics is atheory ofhuman developmentintroduced in the 1996book Spiral Dynamics byDon Beck and Chris Cowan.The book was based on thetheory of psychologyprofessor Clare W. Graves.
  56. 56. SPIRAL DYNAMICS OR EMERGENT CYCLICAL LEVEL OF EXISTENSE THEORYdifferent andcomplexitiesof humanexistence
  57. 57. SPIRAL DYNAMICS OR EMERGENT CYCLICAL LEVEL OF EXISTENSE THEORY Pattern ofhumandiversity andtrajectory forchange.
  58. 58. SPIRAL DYNAMICS OR EMERGENT CYCLICAL LEVEL OF EXISTENSE THEORY Pattern ofhumandiversity andtrajectory forchange.
  59. 59. SPIRAL DYNAMICS OR EMERGENT CYCLICAL LEVEL OF EXISTENSE THEORY TWO INTERACTING FORCES2.Life conditions the person orgroup encounters3.The brain/mind capacitiesavailable to cope with suchconditions
  60. 60. LIFE BRAIN/MIND CONDITIONS COPING CAPACITIESA State of nature BEIGE N Instinctive: as and biological natural instincts urges and and reflexes drives: physical direct; senses dictate automatic the state of existence. being.
  61. 61. LIFE BRAIN/MIND CONDITIONS COPING CAPACITIESB Threatening PURPLE O Animistic: and full of according to mysterious tradition and powers and ritual ways of spirit beings group: tribal; that must be animistic. placated and appeased.
  62. 62. LIFE BRAIN/MIND CONDITIONS COPING CAPACITIESC Like a jungle RED P Egocentric: where the asserting self tough and for dominance, strong prevail, conquest and the weak serve; power. nature is an Exploitive; adversary to be egocentric. conquered.
  63. 63. LIFE BRAIN/MIND CONDITIONS COPING CAPACITIESD Controlled by a BLUE Q Absolutistic: Higher Power obediently as that punishes higher evil and authority and eventually rules direct; rewards good conforming; works and guilt. righteous living.
  64. 64. LIFE BRAIN/MIND CONDITIONS COPING CAPACITIESE Full of ORANGE R Muitiplistic: resources to pragmatically develop and to achieve opportunities results and get to make things ahead; test better and options; bring maneuver prosperity.
  65. 65. LIFE BRAIN/MIND CONDITIONS COPING CAPACITIESF The habitat GREEN S Relativistic; wherein respond to humanity human can find needs; love and affiliative; purposes situational; through consensual; affiliation fluid. and sharing.
  66. 66. LIFE BRAIN/MIND CONDITIONS COPING CAPACITIESG A chaotic YELLOW T Systemic: organism functional; where change integrative; is the norm and interdependent uncertainty an ; existential; acceptable flexible; state of being. questioning; accepting.
  67. 67. LIFE BRAIN/MIND CONDITIONS COPING CAPACITIESH A delicately TURQUOISE U Holistic: balanced experiential: system of transpersonal; interlocking collective forces in consciousness; jeopardy at collaborative; humanity’s interconnected. hands; chaordic.
  68. 68. LIFE BRAIN/MIND CONDITIONS COPING CAPACITIESI Too soon to CORAL V Next say, but should neurological tend to be I- capacities. The oriented; theory is open- controlling, ended up to the consolidating if limits of Homo the pattern sapiens brain. holds.
  69. 69. Does your egomade you whatyou are now?
  70. 70. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT by Jane Loevinger
  71. 71. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT The ego is the struggle tocomprehend, understand, andorganize the experiences of life.(MacAdams, 2006)
  72. 72. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT Jane Loevingers stages of ego developmentconceptualize a theory of ego development that wasbased on Eriksons psychosocial model, as well as onthe works of Harry Stack Sullivan, and in which the egowas theorized to mature and evolve through stagesacross the lifespan as a result of a dynamic interactionbetween the inner self and the outer environment.[1]The ego is the struggle to comprehend, understand,and organize the experiences of life
  73. 73. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Presocial stage (E1) In earliest infancy, a baby cannot differentiate itself from the world and focuses only on gratifying immediate needs. Loevinger believes infants in their earliest state cannot have an ego because their thinking is autistic or delusional.[10] Their ego or thinking is characterised by primary process and delusional projection,[11] This part of the presocial stage does not last long as it quickly merges into the Symbiotic stage. The ego begins to develop and is it dominated by the process of differentiating self from non-self[12] - from the World. The infant, once s/he has a grasp of the stability of the world of objects, the baby retains a symbiotic relation with his/[her] mother[13] and begins the association of objects to themselves. For example, a baby will not fall asleep until they have their favourite toy or blankie in the crib with them.
  74. 74. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Impulsive stage (E2) Here the child asserts his growing sense of self and views the world in ego- centric terms.[14] At this stage the child is preoccupied with bodily impulses, particularly (age-appropriate) sexual and aggressive ones.[15] The child is too immersed in the moment and view the world solely in terms of how things affect them. Their impulses affirm their sense of self however are curbed by the environment. When someone meets their needs they are considered good, and if they do not meet their needs they are considered bad - often resulting in impulsive retaliation such s/]he will run away or run home.[16] Discipline is viewed by the child as restraints, and rewards and punishments are seen as being "Nice to Me" or "Mean to Me". This is because the Childs needs and feelings are experienced mostly in bodily modes,[17] and the childs orientation at this stage is almost exclusively to the present rather than to past or future.
  75. 75. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Self-Protective stage (E3) The "Self-Protective" stage represents the first step towards self-control of impulses....The Self-Protective person has the notion of blame, but he externalizes it to other people or to circumstances. At this level, the child craves a morally prescribed, rigidly enforced, unchanging order, and if maintained too long an older child or adult who remains here may become opportunistic, deceptive, and preoccupied with control...naive instrumental hedonism
  76. 76. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Self-Protective stage (E3) While a degree of conceptual cohesion has been reached, morality is essentially a matter of anticipating rewards and punishments, with the motto: "Don’t Get Caught".
  77. 77. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Conformist stage (E4) Most children around school age...progress to the next stage, conformity. Persons begin to view themselves and other as conforming to socially approved codes or norms. Teaching education as adult development. Theory into Practice, 17(3), p. 231 Loevinger describes this stage of having the greatest cognitive simplicity. There is a right way and a wrong way and it is the same for everyone...or broad classes of people. One example of groups conforming together at this age is by gender—boys and girls. Here persons are very much invested in belonging to and obtaining the approval of groups.[24] Behavior is judged externally, not by intentions, and this concept of belonging to the group (family or peers) is most valued. the child starts to identify his welfare with that of the group, though for the stage to be consolidated, there must be a strong element of trust. An ability to take in rules of the group appears, and anothers disapproval becomes a sanction, not only fear of punishment. However rules and norms are not yet distinguished.
  78. 78. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Self-aware level (E5) Loevinger considered the Self-Aware (also known as Conscientious- Conformist) Transitional Stage to be model for adults in our society,[29] and thought that few pass the stage before at least the age of twenty-five.
  79. 79. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Self-aware level (E5) The stage is largely characterized by two characteristics: an increase in self-awareness and the capacity to imagine multiple possibilities in situations ...[was] a stable position in mature life, one marked by the development of rudimentary self-awareness and self-criticism: however the closeness of the self to norms and expectations reveal the transitional nature of these conceptions, midway between the group stereotypes of the Conformist and the appreciation for individual differences at higher levels. Loevinger also considered the level to produce a deepened interest in interpersonal relations.
  80. 80. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Conscientious stage (I-4) At progression to the conscientious stage...individuals at this level, and even more often at higher levels, refer spontaneously to psychological development.
  81. 81. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Conscientious stage (I-4) By this stage, the internalization of rules is completed, although at the same time exceptions and contingencies are recognized. Goals and ideals are acknowledged, and there is a new sense of responsibility, with guilt triggered by hurting another, rather than by breaking rules. The tendency to look at things in a broader social context was offset by a self seen as apart from the group, but also from the others point of view; as a result descriptions of people are more realistic...[with] more complexities. Standards are self-chosen, and distinguished from manners, just as people are seen in terms of their motives and not just their actions.
  82. 82. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Conscientious stage (I-4) The Conscientious subject sees life as presenting choices; [s]he holds the origin of his own destiny...aspires to achievement, ad astra per aspera [36] but by his or her own standards.
  83. 83. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Individualistic level (E7) During this stage persons demonstrate both a respect for individuality and interpersonal ties. Loevinger explains To proceed beyond the Conscientious Stage a person must become more tolerant of himself and of others...out of the recognition of individual differences and of complexities of circumstances developed at the previous level. The individualistic ego shows a broad-minded tolerance of and respect for the autonomy of both self and others. With a new distancing from role identities, moralism begins to be replaced by an awareness of inner conflict, while the new stage is also marked by a heightened sense of individuality and a concern for emotional dependence‘. Subjective experience is opposed to objective reality, inner reality to outward appearance; and vivid and personal versions of ideas presented as clichés at lower levels‘ may
  84. 84. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Individualistic level (E7) A growing concern for psychological causality and development will typically go hand in hand with greater complexity in conceptions of interpersonal interaction.
  85. 85. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Autonomous stage (E8) Loevinger termed the next stage "autonomous" because it is marked by the freeing of the person from oppressive demands of conscience in the preceding stage. People at this stage are "synthesizers" and are able to conceptually integrate ideas. The autonomous person also recognizes the limitations to autonomy, that emotional interdependence is inevitable. The stage might also see a confrontation with the limitations of abilities and roles as part of deepening self-acceptance.
  86. 86. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Autonomous stage (E8) Self-fulfillment becomes a frequent goal, partly supplanting achievement, while there may well be a wider capacity to acknowledge and to cope with inner conflicts,[46] such as between needs and duties.
  87. 87. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Autonomous stage (E8) A high toleration for ambiguity...[and ] conceptual complexity - the capacity to embrace Polarity, Complexity, Multiple Facets, and to integrate ideas - is a further feature of the Autonomous Stage, as too is the expression of respect for other peoples need for autonomy in clear terms.
  88. 88. STAGES OF EGO DEVELOPMENT∗ Integrated stage (E9) According to Loevinger, this is a rare stage to attain. At the integrated stage, learning is understood as unavoidable...the unattainable is renounced.[49] The ego shows wisdom, broad empathy towards oneself and other, and a capacity to not just be aware of inner conflicts like the individualistic ego or tolerate inner conflicts like the autonomous ego, but reconcile and make peace with those issues.<Witherell, C. S., & Erickson, p. 231</ref> This Reconciling inner conflicts...cherishing of individuality[50] are key elements of its Self-Actualizing nature, along with a fully worked-out identity which includes reconciliation to ones destiny.[51]
  89. 89. Why child’seducation shouldbe fundamental?
  90. 90. SENSITIVE PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT by Maria Montessori∗ Sensitive periods is a term coined by the Dutch geneticist Hugo de Vries and adopted by the Italian educator Maria Montessori to refer to important periods of childhood development.
  91. 91. SENSITIVE PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT Montessori believed thatevery human being goes through aseries of quantum leaps in learningduring the pre-school years.Drawing on the work of de Vries,she attributed these behaviors tothe development of specific areasof the human brain, which shecalled nebulae.[1] She felt this wasespecially true during the first fewyears of life, from birth (or before)to the time of essentially completedevelopment of the brain, aboutage 6 or 7. Montessori observedseveral overlapping periods duringwhich the child is particularlysensitive to certain types of stimulior interactions.
  92. 92. SENSITIVE PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT According to Montessori, during a sensitive period it is very easyfor children to acquire certain abilities, such as language, discriminationof sensory stimuli, and mental modeling of the environment. Once thesensitive period for a particular ability is past, the development of thebrain has progressed past the point at which information can be simplyabsorbed. The child must then be taught the ability, resulting inexpenditure of conscious effort, and not producing results as great ascould be produced if the sensitive period had been taken advantage of.Montessori was not very specific in her published works about theprecise number, description, or timing of these sensitive periods.However, in her lectures to teacher trainees she set out several periodswith the approximate ages to which they applied. More importantly,she believed, adults should observe the behavior and activities ofchildren to discover what sensitive periods they are in.
  93. 93. SENSITIVE PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENTAge Sensitivity The absorbent mind: the mind soaks up information like a sponge. Sensory learning and experiences: the child uses all five senses -Birth to 6 years touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing - to understand and absorb information about his or her environment. Language explosion: a child builds his or her future foundation for1.5 to 3 years language. Development and coordination of fine and large muscle skills,1.5 to 4 years advanced developing grasp and release skill spawns an interest in any small object. Very mobile with greater coordination and refinement of movement, increased interest in language and communication2 to 4 years (they enjoy telling stories), aware of spatial relationships, matching, sequence and order of objects.
  94. 94. SENSITIVE PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENTAge Sensitivity Works well incorporating all five senses for learning and adapting2.5 to 6 years to environment. Interest in and admiration of the adult world: they want to copy3 to 6 years and mimic adults, such as parents and teachers. Using one’s hands and fingers in cutting, writing and art. Their4 to 5 years tactile senses are very developed and acute. Reading and math readiness, and, eventually, reading and math4.5 to 6 years skills.
  95. 95. Do you believe thateveryone is uniquefrom one another?
  96. 96. SEPARATION – INDIVIDUATION THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT by Margaret Mahler∗ In Mahler’s theory, child development takes place in phases, each with several sub phases:
  97. 97. SEPARATION – INDIVIDUATION THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT∗ In Mahler’s theory, child development takes place in phases, each with several sub phases:∗ Normal Autistic Phase - First few weeks of life. The infant is detached and self-absorbed. Spends most of his/her time sleeping. Mahler later abandoned this phase, based on new findings from her infant research.[2] She believed it to be non-existent. The phase still appears in many books on her theories.
  98. 98. SEPARATION – INDIVIDUATION THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT∗ Normal Symbiotic Phase - Lasts until about 5 months of age. The child is now aware of his/her mother but there is not a sense of individuality. The infant and the mother are one, and there is a barrier between them and the rest of the world.
  99. 99. SEPARATION – INDIVIDUATION THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT Separation-Individuation Phase -The arrival of this phase marks the end ofthe Normal Symbiotic Phase. Separationrefers to the development of limits, thedifferentiation between the infant and themother, whereas individuation refers tothe development of the infants ego, senseof identity, and cognitive abilities. Mahlerexplains how a child with the age of a fewmonths breaks out of an “autistic shell”into the world with human connections.This process, labeledseparation-individuation, is divided intosubphases, each with its own onset,outcomes and risks. The followingsubphases proceed in this order butoverlap considerably.
  100. 100. SEPARATION – INDIVIDUATION THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT Hatching – first months. The infantceases to be ignorant of thedifferentiation between him/her andthe mother. "Rupture of the shell".Increased alertness and interest forthe outside world. Using the motheras a point of orientation.
  101. 101. SEPARATION – INDIVIDUATION THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT Practicing – 9-about 16 months.Brought about by the infants abilityto crawl and then walk freely, theinfant begins to explore actively andbecomes more distant from themother. The child experiences himselfstill as one with his mother.
  102. 102. SEPARATION – INDIVIDUATION THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT Rapprochement –15–24 months. In this subphase,the infant once again becomes close to the mother. Thechild realizes that his physical mobility demonstratespsychic separateness from his mother. The toddler maybecome tentative, wanting his mother to be in sight sothat, through eye contact and action, he can explore hisworld. The risk is that the mother will misread this needand respond with impatience or unavailability. This canlead to an anxious fear of abandonment in the toddler.A basic ‘mood predisposition’ may be established at thispoint. Rapprochement is divided into a few sub phases:
  103. 103. SEPARATION – INDIVIDUATION THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT Beginning - Motivated by a desire toshare discoveries with the mother. Crisis - Between staying with themother, being emotionally close and beingmore independent and exploring. Solution - Individual solutions areenabled by the development of languageand the superego.
  104. 104. SEPARATION – INDIVIDUATION THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT Disruptions in thefundamental process ofseparation-individuation canresult in a disturbance in theability to maintain a reliablesense of individual identity inadulthood.
  105. 105. Do you believe insomething youcan’t see?
  106. 106. JAMES FOWLER’S STAGE OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT proposed byProfessor James W. Fowler,a developmentalpsychologist at CandlerSchool of Theology, in thebook Stages of Faith. It proposes a stageddevelopment of faith (orspiritual development)across the life span.
  107. 107. FOWLER’S STAGE OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT Faith is seen as a holistic orientation, and is concernedwith the individuals relatedness to the universal. Fowler definesfaith as an activity of trusting, committing and relating to theworld based on a set of assumptions of how one is related toothers and the world.∗Stage 0 – "Primal or Undifferentiated" faith (birth to 2 years), ischaracterized by an early learning of the safety of theirenvironment (i.e. warm, safe and secure vs. hurt, neglect andabuse). If consistent nurture is experienced, one will develop asense of trust and safety about the universe and the divine.Conversely, negative experiences will cause one to developdistrust with the universe and the divine. Transition to the nextstage begins with integration of thought and languages whichfacilitates the use of symbols in speech and play.
  108. 108. FOWLER’S STAGE OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT Stage 1 – "Intuitive-Projective"faith (ages of three to seven), ischaracterized by the psychesunprotected exposure to theUnconscious.
  109. 109. FOWLER’S STAGE OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT Stage 2 – "Mythic-Literal" faith(mostly in school children), stage twopersons have a strong belief in thejustice and reciprocity of the universe,and their deities are almost alwaysanthropomorphic.
  110. 110. FOWLER’S STAGE OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT Stage 3 – "Synthetic-Conventional"faith (arising in adolescence; aged 12 toadulthood) characterized by conformity toreligious authority and the development ofa personal identity. Any conflicts with onesbeliefs are ignored at this stage due to thefear of threat from inconsistencies.
  111. 111. FOWLER’S STAGE OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT Stage 4 – "Individuative-Reflective" faith(usually mid-twenties to late thirties) a stage ofangst and struggle. The individual takes personalresponsibility for his or her beliefs and feelings.As one is able to reflect on ones own beliefs,there is an openness to a new complexity offaith, but this also increases the awareness ofconflicts in ones belief.
  112. 112. FOWLER’S STAGE OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT Stage 5 – "Conjunctive" faith (mid-lifecrisis) acknowledges paradox or contradictionand transcendence relating reality behind thesymbols of inherited systems. The individualresolves conflicts from previous stages by acomplex understanding of a multidimensional,interdependent "truth" that cannot be explainedby any particular statement.
  113. 113. FOWLER’S STAGE OF FAITH DEVELOPMENT Stage 6 – "Universalizing" faith, orwhat some might call "enlightenment". The individual would treat anyperson with compassion as he or sheviews people as from a universalcommunity, and should be treatedwith universal principles of love andjustice.
  114. 114. Who is your rolemodel?
  115. 115. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY by Albert Bandura Social learningtheory is a perspectivethat states that peoplelearn within a socialcontext. It is facilitatedthrough concepts suchas modeling andobservational learning.
  116. 116. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY According to Social Learning theory,models are an important source for learning newbehaviors and for achieving behavioral change ininstitutionalized settings. Social learning theoryis derived from the work of Albert Bandurawhich proposed that observational learning canoccur in relation to three models:
  117. 117. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY∗Live model – in which an actual person is demonstrating the desired behavior
  118. 118. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY∗ Verbal instruction – in which an individual describes the desired behavior in detail, and instructs the participant in how to engage in the behavior
  119. 119. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY∗ Symbolic – in which modeling occurs by means of the media, including movies, television, Internet, literature, and radio. This type of modeling involves a real or fictional character demonstrating the behavior.
  120. 120. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY An important factor of Albert Bandura’ssocial learning theory is the emphasis onreciprocal determinism. This notion states thatan individual’s behavior is influenced by theenvironment and characteristics of the person.In other words, a person’s behavior,environment, and personal qualities allreciprocally influence each other. Banduraproposed that the modeling process involvesseveral steps:
  121. 121. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY∗ 1. Attention – in order for an individual to learn something, they must pay attention to the features of the modeled behavior.∗ 2. Retention – humans need to be able to remember details of the behavior in order to learn and later reproduce the behavior.∗ 3. Reproduction – in reproducing a behavior, an individual must organize his or her responses in accordance with the model behavior. This ability can improve with practice.∗ 4. Motivation – there must be an incentive or motivation driving the individual’s reproduction of the behavior. Even if all of the above factors are present, the person will not engage in the behavior without motivation.
  122. 122. Have you foundyour identity?
  123. 123. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY∗ Originally by Erik Erikson by sharpened by James Marcia, a Psychology Professor
  124. 124. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY He identified four (4) identitystatuses: 1.identity diffusion, 2.identity foreclosure, 3.identity moratorium 4.identity achievement
  125. 125. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY The statuses are ways to resolveidentity crisis and then establish acommitment to this identity.
  126. 126. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY The statuses are ways to resolveidentity crisis and then establish acommitment to this identity. Crisis – a period of developmentwhere the adolescent experiencealternative identities and then hechooses.
  127. 127. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY Commitment – decision that theadolescent makes on what he or she isgoing to do.
  128. 128. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY Commitment – decision that theadolescent makes on what he or she isgoing to do. It includes occupation, religion,philosophy, sex roles or personalstandards of sexual behavior.
  129. 129. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY Identity diffusion is the statuswhere adolescents have notexperienced any identity crisis yet. Theyhave yet to explore meaningfulalternatives and they have yet to makeany commitments. During this status,adolescents do not show interest inoccupational or ideological choices.
  130. 130. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY Identity foreclosure is the status whereadolescents have decided on a commitment; however,they have not had an identity crisis. That is, theadolescent has not had any opportunity to experiencealternatives. The adolescent accepts what others havechosen for him or her. Usually, this occurs when anauthoritative parent passes on their commitment to theadolescent. These same adolescents will identify moreclosely to the same-sex parent. For example, if a fatheris a mechanic and owns his own business, then his sonwill become a mechanic and take over the business.
  131. 131. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY Identity moratorium is a marginal periodwhere the adolescent is on the verge of anidentity crisis; however, the adolescent has notmade any commitments yet. The termmoratorium refers to a period of delay wheresomeone had not yet made a decision. It is duringthis time that they experience different roles.During this period, adolescents and young adultswill court one another, look at different careeropportunities, explore philosophies and so on.
  132. 132. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY Identity achievement is the final statuswhere the individual has gone through apsychological moratorium and have madetheir decisions for life. These individualshave explored different roles andopportunities and have come toconclusions and made decisions on theirown.
  133. 133. IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT THEORY In short, James Marcia found that apersons identity is not "set" and is quite fluid.Before a persons identity is chosen, individualsgo through a process, whether it is forced onthem or not, to determine their identity. Apersons identity is made up of commitmentsmade by the individual. These commitments aredecisions made throughout ones life thatdetermines "who" that person will be.
  134. 134. BIBLIOGRAPHY www.yahoo.com/imageshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developmental_psychologyhttp://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developmental_stage_theorieshttp://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htmhttp://www.hydranencephaly.com/Care/structuralcognitive.htmen.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_Two_Alike:_Human_Nature_and_Human_Individualityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiral_Dynamicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loevinger%27s_stages_of_ego_developmenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensitive_periodshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Mahler#Separation-Individuation_Theory_of_child_developmenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stages_of_faith_developmenthttp://www.helium.com/items/1560359-marcias-four-identity-statuseshttp://www.spiraldynamics.org/aboutsd_theory.htm
  135. 135. Have you learningsomething fromme today?
  136. 136. DOWNLOAD LINKhttp://www.slideshare.net/jaredram55
  137. 137. THANK YOU VERY MUCH Prepared by: JARED RAM A. JUEZAN MAEd – Educational Management June 27 - 29, 2012

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