2.1• Matter is the main source of the pure substances and mixtures.• This is a pretty simple graph of the graph of what is in matter.• Matter is broken up into two different sections; Pure Substances and Elements.
Physical Properties• There are many physical properties, a physical property is any characteristic of a material that can be measured without changing the composition of the substances in the material.• Viscosity is one of the physical properties; it is the tendency of a liquid to keep from ﬂowing. An example is shampoo.• Conductivity is; a material’s ability to allow heat to ﬂow. An example is a metal spoon.• Malleability is; the ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering. An example is pieces of zinc.
Pure Substance• Matter that always has exactly the same composition is classiﬁed as a pure substance.• Table sugar and table salt are some examples of a pure substance because no matter how much sugar you take it always tastes equally sugary.• Pure substances are broken up into two sections: elements and compounds• Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into smaller and simpler substances.• A compound is a substance that is made from two or more simpler substances and can be broken down into those simpler substances.
Mixtures• Mixtures tend to retain some of the same properties of their individual substances.• Mixtures can also be broken down into two different parts; Heterogeneous mixture and Homogenous mixture.• In a heterogenous mixture, the parts if the mixture are very different from each other.• In a homogenous mixture, the substances are so much a like that it is hard to distinguish one substance from another.
More Physical Properties• Hardness is; a comparative test between two objects to see which one will scrape the other. An example is zinc to aluminum.• Density is; used to test the purity of a substance. An example is identifying four metal objects lab.• Melting point is; the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.• Boiling point is; the temperature at which a substance boils.
2.2• There are many ways to use physical properties; you can use them to identify materials, choose materials, and to separate mixtures.
Distillation• Distillation is a process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points.
Filtration• Filtration is a process that separates materials based on the size of the particles and/or solubility
Evaporation• Evaporation is a process used to isolate a solid dissolved in a liquid
Reactivity• The property that describes how readily a substance combines chemically with other substances.• Oxygen is a highly reactive element.• So is iron
Flammability• Materials that can be used as fuel.• Such as paper and nitrogen• A materials ability to burn in the presence of oxygen.
Electrolysiswe tested to see how water separated chemically
Review• What are some examples of physical change?
Review• On what basis can mixtures be classiﬁed as solutions, suspensions, or colloids
Review• Why can the mixtures of a mixture vary?
Review• What processes are used to separate mixtures.