Chapter 3: Matter—Properties        and Changes    Section 3.4 Types of Matter      Elements & Compounds
What is matter?• Anything that has mass and  takes up space• Mass is a measurement of the  amount of matter in an object. ...
Now that you’re an expert, which of thefollowing is matter?                         Matter    Not  1.   A book            ...
There is so many different kinds of   matter, that we need to organize it. Substances have a uniform and unchanging  comp...
Chemical symbols• Make it easy to write the formulas for chemical  compounds• Ex: salt                       water        ...
Elements• A pure substance that cannot be broken down  into simpler substances by physical or  chemical means• 91 naturall...
Dmitri Mendeleev--1869-Organized the knownelements into a table ofrows and columns basedon their similarities andmasses.
Periodic table• Organized into horizontal rows called  periods and vertical columns called families• Called “periodic” bec...
Compounds• A combination of 2 or more different elements  that are combined chemically• Most of the matter in the universe...
Compounds• Can be broken down into simpler  substances by chemical means• Usually requires energy
Compounds• Properties of a compound are different from  its component elements• Ex: water—liquid at   room temp.        Hy...
Sodium chloride• As a compound, it is a white, unreactive  solid that adds flavor to food• Its component elements:Chlorine...
States of MatterClassification based upon the following: Particle arrangement Energy of particles Distance between part...
3 states of matter
States of Matter1. Solid—has a definite shape and volume   exs: wood, desk, shoes, sugar   -particles are tightly packed, ...
States of Matter2. Liquids—have a constant volume,  -no definite shape  -takes the shape of its container  -particles are ...
States of Matter3. Gases—have no definite shape or   volume   -particles are very far apart   -particles are easily compre...
Section 3.3Mixtures of Matter
Mixtures• A combination of 2 or more pure substances  in which each pure substance retains its  individual chemical proper...
Types of Mixtures1. Heterogeneous—individual substances  remain distinct
Types of Mixtures2. Homogeneous—has a constant   composition throughout   -called a solution
Types of Solutions•   Gas-gas: air•   Gas-liquid: soft drinks•   Liquid-gas: moist air•   Liquid-liquid: vinegar•   Solid-...
Separating Mixtures1. Physical separation:  hand selection or  pouring through sieves
Separating Mixtures2. Filtration—uses a  porous barrier to separate  a solid from a liquid
Separating Mixtures3. Distillation—based on  differences in the  boiling points of the  substances involved
Separating Mixtures4. Crystallization—results  in the formation of pure  solid particles of a  substance from a solution  ...
Separating Mixtures5. Chromatography—  separating the  components of a mixture  based on the tendency of  each to travel a...
Matter                                             Pure           Mixtures                                           subst...
Section 3.1Properties of Matter
Physical Properties of Matter A characteristic that can be observed  or measured without changing the  composition of the...
Physical Properties of Matter: Two Types1. Extensive: dependent on the amount of   substance present   --length, volume2. ...
Chemical Properties Ability or inability of a substance to  combine with or change into one or  more other substances
Physical             Chemical       Properties           Properties•   Conducts electricity • Forms dark blue•   Malleable...
Classify each as a physical or           chemical property:1.   Iron and oxygen form rust.2.   Iron is more dense than alu...
Section 3.2Changes in Matter
Physical Change• Changes in a substance’s appearance, not in  composition
Types of physical changes:•Bend, grind, crumple•Split, crush, twist•Boil, freeze, melt, vaporize(changes of state or phase...
Chemical Changes• A change in the composition of a  substance• Also called a chemical change or  chemical reaction• Ex: ru...
become      sThe substancehas changed. becomes
Evidence of Chemical Change2. Energy change:absorbed or released
3. Odor changesor production        4. Gas production5. Precipitateformation
Classify each as a physical or            chemical change:1.   A dead fish rotting2.   Dissolving salt in water3.   Boilin...
Section 3.3 & 3.4   Laws of Matter
Law of Conservation of MassMass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction—it is conserved. (Antoine Lav...
Antoine Lavoisier—aFrench scientisto 1743-1794o Father of ModernChemistryo One of the first to usean analytical balance
When you burn a big pile of wood, why doyou only end up with a tiny pile of ashes?
In an experiment, 10.00 g of red mercury (II) oxidepowder is placed in an open flask and heated until itis converted to li...
Practice problems—pg. 65 #6, 7, 9
Law of Definite Proportions• John Dalton• A pure substance will always have the same  percent by weight• Ex: water (H2O) =...
To find percent by mass:Percent by mass =    mass of element x 100                    mass of compound
Analysis of sugar:           20.0 g sugar                   500.0 g sugarCarbon      8.44 g    42.2%    Carbon        211....
Therefore…• Sugar always has the same proportions of  ingredients• If a substance has different proportions, it is  a diff...
A 78.8 g sample of an unknown compound contains12.4 g of hydrogen. What is the percent by mass of            hydrogen in t...
Practice problems—pg. 76 #21-24
Law of Multiple Proportions• When different compounds are formed  using the same elements, different masses  of one elemen...
Carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide CO                      CO2O=        1   O=          2C=        1               1          ...
Copper (I) chloride                      Copper (II) chloride
PS CH 10 matter properties and changes edited
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PS CH 10 matter properties and changes edited

  1. 1. Chapter 3: Matter—Properties and Changes Section 3.4 Types of Matter Elements & Compounds
  2. 2. What is matter?• Anything that has mass and takes up space• Mass is a measurement of the amount of matter in an object. It is different than weight which measures the amount of matter AND the gravitational pull on an object.
  3. 3. Now that you’re an expert, which of thefollowing is matter? Matter Not 1. A book Matter 2. A house 3. A thought 4. Your brain 5. Light 6. Your cell phone 7. Radio waves
  4. 4. There is so many different kinds of matter, that we need to organize it. Substances have a uniform and unchanging composition examples: salt, water, sugar
  5. 5. Chemical symbols• Make it easy to write the formulas for chemical compounds• Ex: salt water NaCl H 2O
  6. 6. Elements• A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means• 91 naturally occurring elements• Symbolized by one capital letter or one capital letter and 1 lower case – ex: S = sulfur – Na = sodium• In mid 1800’s, no chart for organizing the elements that were known at the time
  7. 7. Dmitri Mendeleev--1869-Organized the knownelements into a table ofrows and columns basedon their similarities andmasses.
  8. 8. Periodic table• Organized into horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called families• Called “periodic” because properties of elements repeat as you move from period to period• Mendeleev’s table left blank spaces for elements yet to be discovered and predicted their properties
  9. 9. Compounds• A combination of 2 or more different elements that are combined chemically• Most of the matter in the universe are compounds• Ex: water (H2O), sugar (C12H22O11), salt (NaCl), aspirin (C9H8O4)
  10. 10. Compounds• Can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means• Usually requires energy
  11. 11. Compounds• Properties of a compound are different from its component elements• Ex: water—liquid at room temp. Hydrogen—a colorless, tasteless gas Oxygen—a colorless, tasteless gas
  12. 12. Sodium chloride• As a compound, it is a white, unreactive solid that adds flavor to food• Its component elements:Chlorine—poisonous, pale,green gas Sodium—a highly reactive element that fizzes in water
  13. 13. States of MatterClassification based upon the following: Particle arrangement Energy of particles Distance between particlesState of matter is dependent on temperature and pressure of the surroundings
  14. 14. 3 states of matter
  15. 15. States of Matter1. Solid—has a definite shape and volume exs: wood, desk, shoes, sugar -particles are tightly packed, incompressible
  16. 16. States of Matter2. Liquids—have a constant volume, -no definite shape -takes the shape of its container -particles are not held rigidly in place, allows material to flow
  17. 17. States of Matter3. Gases—have no definite shape or volume -particles are very far apart -particles are easily compressed
  18. 18. Section 3.3Mixtures of Matter
  19. 19. Mixtures• A combination of 2 or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.
  20. 20. Types of Mixtures1. Heterogeneous—individual substances remain distinct
  21. 21. Types of Mixtures2. Homogeneous—has a constant composition throughout -called a solution
  22. 22. Types of Solutions• Gas-gas: air• Gas-liquid: soft drinks• Liquid-gas: moist air• Liquid-liquid: vinegar• Solid-liquid: Crystal Light• Solid-solid: steel (called “alloys”—mixture of metals producing greater strength)
  23. 23. Separating Mixtures1. Physical separation: hand selection or pouring through sieves
  24. 24. Separating Mixtures2. Filtration—uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid
  25. 25. Separating Mixtures3. Distillation—based on differences in the boiling points of the substances involved
  26. 26. Separating Mixtures4. Crystallization—results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance
  27. 27. Separating Mixtures5. Chromatography— separating the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each to travel across the surface of another material.
  28. 28. Matter Pure Mixtures substancesHeterogeneous Homogeneous Mixtures Mixtures Elements Compounds Dirt, blood, Lemonade, Oxygen, gold, Salt, baking milk gasoline, steel iron soda, sugar
  29. 29. Section 3.1Properties of Matter
  30. 30. Physical Properties of Matter A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the sample Properties such as density, color, odor, taste, hardness, melting point, boiling point
  31. 31. Physical Properties of Matter: Two Types1. Extensive: dependent on the amount of substance present --length, volume2. Intensive: independent of the amount of substance present --density, melting point, boiling point --used to identify substances
  32. 32. Chemical Properties Ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances
  33. 33. Physical Chemical Properties Properties• Conducts electricity • Forms dark blue• Malleable solution with• Ductile ammonia• Reddish brown • Forms green• Shiny compound when exposed to air• Density = 8.92 g/cm 3• Melting pt = 1085°C• Boiling pt = 2570°C
  34. 34. Classify each as a physical or chemical property:1. Iron and oxygen form rust.2. Iron is more dense than aluminum3. Magnesium burns brightly when ignited.4. Oil and water do not mix.5. Mercury melts at -39°C.
  35. 35. Section 3.2Changes in Matter
  36. 36. Physical Change• Changes in a substance’s appearance, not in composition
  37. 37. Types of physical changes:•Bend, grind, crumple•Split, crush, twist•Boil, freeze, melt, vaporize(changes of state or phase) (.wav)
  38. 38. Chemical Changes• A change in the composition of a substance• Also called a chemical change or chemical reaction• Ex: rust, corrode, tarnish, rot, burn, ferment, explode, oxidize
  39. 39. become sThe substancehas changed. becomes
  40. 40. Evidence of Chemical Change2. Energy change:absorbed or released
  41. 41. 3. Odor changesor production 4. Gas production5. Precipitateformation
  42. 42. Classify each as a physical or chemical change:1. A dead fish rotting2. Dissolving salt in water3. Boiling salt water until only salt remains4. Melting steel5. Bending steel6. Cracking ice
  43. 43. Section 3.3 & 3.4 Laws of Matter
  44. 44. Law of Conservation of MassMass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction—it is conserved. (Antoine Lavoisier) Mass of reactants = Mass of products
  45. 45. Antoine Lavoisier—aFrench scientisto 1743-1794o Father of ModernChemistryo One of the first to usean analytical balance
  46. 46. When you burn a big pile of wood, why doyou only end up with a tiny pile of ashes?
  47. 47. In an experiment, 10.00 g of red mercury (II) oxidepowder is placed in an open flask and heated until itis converted to liquid mercury and oxygen gas. The liquid mercury has a mass of 9.26 g. What is the mass of oxygen formed in the reaction?
  48. 48. Practice problems—pg. 65 #6, 7, 9
  49. 49. Law of Definite Proportions• John Dalton• A pure substance will always have the same percent by weight• Ex: water (H2O) = 11.2 % hydrogen 88.8% oxygen
  50. 50. To find percent by mass:Percent by mass = mass of element x 100 mass of compound
  51. 51. Analysis of sugar: 20.0 g sugar 500.0 g sugarCarbon 8.44 g 42.2% Carbon 211.0 g 42.2%Hydrogen 1.30 g 6.5% Hydrogen 32.5 g 6.5%Oxygen 10.26 g 51.30% Oxygen 256.5 g 51.30%
  52. 52. Therefore…• Sugar always has the same proportions of ingredients• If a substance has different proportions, it is a different substance
  53. 53. A 78.8 g sample of an unknown compound contains12.4 g of hydrogen. What is the percent by mass of hydrogen in the compound?Percent by mass = mass of element x 100 mass of compound
  54. 54. Practice problems—pg. 76 #21-24
  55. 55. Law of Multiple Proportions• When different compounds are formed using the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in small, whole number ratios.
  56. 56. Carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide CO CO2O= 1 O= 2C= 1 1 C=
  57. 57. Copper (I) chloride Copper (II) chloride

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