Classification of Matter

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Classification of Matter

  1. 1. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
  3. 3. PURE SUBSTANCES <ul><li>pure substance = a substance that has constant composition and properties (contains only one kind of particle) </li></ul>
  4. 4. ELEMENTS <ul><li>element = a pure substance that cannot be broken down by ordinary means. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>eg) Any example from the periodic table </li></ul>
  6. 6. COMPOUNDS <ul><li>compound = a pure substance that contains two or more different elements in a fixed proportion. The elements are chemically bonded. </li></ul>
  7. 7. COMPOUNDS <ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul>NaCl C 12 H 22 O 11
  8. 8. ATOMS <ul><li>atom = a particle in an element and the smallest unit of an element </li></ul>
  9. 9. MOLECULES <ul><li>molecule = the combination of two or more atoms </li></ul>
  10. 10. MOLECULES
  11. 11. MIXTURES <ul><li>mixture = a substance that contains two or more different pure substances that are NOT chemically combined </li></ul>
  12. 12. MIXTURES <ul><li>Components can be separated by physical means (e.g. filtration, evaporation, distillation) </li></ul>
  13. 13. HOMOGENEOUS SOLUTION <ul><li>homogeneous solution = a mixture that has “uniform” composition - i.e. one phase. The components within the solution are not identifiable with the eye. </li></ul>
  14. 14. SOLUTE <ul><li>solute = the particle that is present in smaller proportions. The dissolved particle. </li></ul>
  15. 15. SOLVENT <ul><li>solvent = the particle in larger proportion. The substance in which the solute is dissolved. </li></ul>
  16. 16. ALLOY <ul><li>alloy = a homogeneous mixture of one or more metals </li></ul>sterling silver steel bronze silver + copper iron + carbon copper + tin + zinc
  17. 17. HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURE <ul><li>heterogeneous mechanical mixture = a substance in which the different components are identifiable. Has two or more phases. </li></ul>
  18. 18. MECHANICAL MIXTURE <ul><li>ordinary mechanical mixture = a substance in which the particles are not uniformly scattered </li></ul>
  19. 19. SUSPENSION <ul><li>suspension = suspended particles can be seen with the unaided eye. If left undisturbed, gravity will cause the particles to separate. </li></ul>
  20. 20. EMULSION <ul><li>emulsion = a suspension of liquids where separation of particles is prevented through the use of an emulsifying agent. </li></ul>
  21. 21. COLLOID <ul><li>colloid = suspended particles cannot be seen with the unaided eye. Gravity will not cause them to separate (they appear to be homogeneous) </li></ul>
  22. 22. TYNDALL EFFECT <ul><li>tyndall effect = the scattering of a beam of light caused by particles in a colloid . Allows homogeneous solutions and colloids to be distinguished. </li></ul>

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