The Kingdom of Asturias• During the Muslim conquest, some Christians Visigoth nobles took refuge in the Cordillera Cantábrica.• Among these nobles was Pelayo (Pelagius). He defeated the Muslims for the first time in722 in Covadonga (Asturias).• This battle is believed to be the beginning of the Reconquista.
ALFONSO III • Alfonso III built a defensive line of castles in the west of the kingdom of Leon as protection from the Muslim army. This territory was named Castile
The kingdom of Castile• In the 10th century, Castile was governed by counts under the control of the king of Leon. One of these counts, Fernan Gonzalez, gained independence from the kingdom of Leon.
THE PYRENEAN COUNTIES AND KINGDOMS• The creation of the Marca Hispánica• The kingdom of Pamplona• The kingdom of Aragón• The Catalan counties
The Marca Hispanica• Was created by Charlemagne as a defensive zone divided into counties to protect his territory from the Muslims• When Charlemagne died, many of these counties became kingdoms and independent counties from the Frankish imperial rule.
The kingdom of Pamplona• The count of Pamplona, Iñigo Arista, gained control of his territory from the Franks and created the kingdom of Pamplona in 830.• Experienced its greatest expansion under Sancho III el Grande. He united the kingdom of Pamplona (later kingdom of Navarre), and the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon. This territory was divided among his sons when hi died.
QUIZA) What was the Marca Hispánica?B) When was the kingdom of Pamplona created?
ANSWERSA) The Marca Hispánica was a zone created by Charlemagne to defend his territory from the Muslim armyB) The kingdom of Pamplona was created in 830
The kingdom of Aragon• In the 9th century, some Aragonese counties in the Marca Hispánica (Aragón, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza) freed themselves from Frankish rule. Ramiro I, the son of Sancho III, proclaimed himself king of Aragon
The Catalan Counties• In the 9th century, Wilfred the Hairy (Wifredo el Velloso), count of Barcelona, extended his rule to include others Catalan counties. In 987, another count of Barcelona, Borrell II, gained independence of the Franks. He then left his territories to his sons.
QUICK REVISION• Charlemagne created The Marca Hispánica to defend his territory from Muslim armies.• The Marca Hispánica was divided into counties that eventually gained independence from Frankish rule
QUIZ• Who was the first king of the kingdom of Aragón?
ANSWERS6. Pamplona: Sancho III Aragón: Ramiro I Catalan counties: Borrell II7. The Marca Hispánica was a defensive zone created by Charlemagne to protect his Pyrenees territories
The resettlement (repoblación)• It is the process of occupation of territory after the Christians kings conquered it from the Muslims.• Once conquered, the territory became property of the King.• Then,
The territory could be given to free peasants.
The territory could be given to monasteriesMonasterio de Santo Toribio de Monasterio de San Miguel de laLiébana de Potes Escalada
The king awarded privileges to the settlers.The privileges were:• Trade permits These privileges were• Personal freedom detailed in a document.• Exemptions from taxes This document is called the settlement letter (carta puebla o carta de poblamiento)
SETTLEMENT LETTERS CARTA PUEBLA DE AZUEBARCARTA PUEBLA DE CIUDAD REAL (Valencia)
P. 59 ACTIVITIESA) What was resettlement?B) What was a settlement letter?
A) Resettlement was the process of Christian occupation of territory taken from Muslims.B) Settlement letters were documents detailing the privileges awarded by kings to settlers.