1- How did the Christian kingdomsbegin?Christian resistanceThe muslims conquered almost the entire Iberian Peninsula.
The remaining visigoths in the northern area founded the Christian kingdoms between the 8th and 9th centuries.These kingdoms would lead the Reconquest, that means the fights to recover territories under muslim rule.
The first kingdoms formed were: .The kingdom of Asturias and León, originated in the Cantabrian mountains. .The kingdom of Navarre and the Aragonese and Catalan counties, originated in the Pyrenees.
During eight centuries christians and muslims coexisted in the Iberian Peninsula (from 711 to 1492).
Asturias and LeónKINGDOM OF ASTURIASPelayo was chosen as the king of Asturias in 718.He won the Battle of Covadonga (722) to the muslims, stopping its expansion.
Kingdom of AsturiasThe court (or capital) was established in Oviedo.During the 9th century Asturian kings expanded their territory.Their greatest expansion coincided with the reign of Alfonso III (866-910).In the 10th century the court was moved to the city of León, and the kingdom changed its name to Kingdom of León.
Kingdom of LéonFrom 910 the Kingdom ofAsturias became known asthe Kingdom of León, becauseof the change of its capital.The capital was moved due toits expansion towards RiverDuero.It will last until 1230.
CASTILE COUNTIESThe Kingdom of León declined after the 10th century, and Castile counties increased their power.Castile territory was in frontier with the muslims, so they had a lot of castles to defend the Christian territory from attacks.Castile counties became united under the count Fernán González (930-970).From 951 he governed Castile independently from León.
Kingdom of CastileIn 1035 Castile became an independent Kingdom, in the hands of King Fernando I.
The Pyrenean regionOrigin -> It was the Spanish March in the Carolingian Empire.In the 9th century the Carolingian Empire finished, and three different regions emerged: .Navarre .Aragón .Catalan counties
Kingdom of Navarre The count Íñigo Arista formed the Kingdom of Pamplona, after renamed Kingdom of Navarre with its expansion towards the south. From the 10th century, the Jimena dynasty ruled in Navarre and extended their influence. Sancho III the Great (1000-1035) became a powerful king in the peninsula. He added to his kingdom the Aragonese counties, Castile and part of León. But after his death, his
Sancho IIIs legacyAfter his death, the kingdom was divided between his sons: .His first-born son García Sánchez III inherited Navarre. .Fernando I received Castile county. .Ramiro I got Aragón. .Gonzalo received thecounties of Sobrarbe andRibagorza.
The Aragonese countiesOrigin - They were part of the Carolingian Empire until:820 - The count Aznar Galindo achieved independence for Aragón.922 - Aragón came under the rule of the Kingdom of Navarre.1035 - After the death of Sancho III, Aragón achieved its independence again.
The Catalan countiesOrigin -> in the Carolingian Empire the Catalonian territory was divided into different counties.Wilfred the Hairy united the Catalan counties in 874. He ruled them independently fromthe Carolingian Empire.It had stability due to good relationswith the Caliphate.From the 10th century it obtained itsindependence.
3- What was the art of the Christiankingdoms like?-During the Reconquest period, Art developed in the Christian kingdoms, as it did in Al-Andalus.-We can distinguish different art styles in the different regions.-The most important styles were: .Asturian Art .Mozarabic Art .Mudejar Art-Afterwards Romanesque and Gothic Art began.
Asturian Art-Main examples near Oviedo.-Santa María del Naranco.
-The expansion of the Christian Kingdoms .The Duero Valley - during the 9 and 10th centuries the Reconquest arrived to the River Duero. Colonizations of the land was the system of Repopulation. .The Tajo and Ebro valleys - during the 11-12th centuries the Reconquest continued in an easier way because the Taifas (1031) were weaker than the Christian kingdoms. This was a period of big expansion. The Repopulation was made creating cities or towns (capital) and small villages depending on them. Kings give fueros to towns. After the 11th century much of the land was underpopulated so kings gave big feudal estates to nobles, the Church or military orders.
.The Guadalquivir Valley, Levante and the Balearicislands - the defeat of the almohads in Las Navas deTolosa battle in 1212 was the beginning of the end formuslims. Christian kingdoms expanded and almost finishedwith the muslims territories.
Three culturesThree main cultures (and religions) coexisted in the Christian kingdoms after the Reconquest: .The Christians, who were the more numerous. .The Mudejars, who were muslims in christian territory. .The Jews, with tense relations in this period.
5 - How did the Crown of Castile evolve?THE CROWN OF CASTILE-Castile became the most powerful christian kingdom.-Alfonso VI conquered Toledo in 1085.-In 1212 the Christian kingdoms won the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, and the Almohads almost disappeared.-In 1139 (12th century) Portugal became an independent kingdom.-In 1230 Fernando III united León andCastile founding the Crown of Castile.
The Crown of CastileGOVERNMENTThe Crown of Castile was a state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the definitive union of the crowns of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then King Ferdinand III of Castile to the vacant Leonese throne.The Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Castile kept different Parliaments, different flags, different coin and different laws until the Modern Era.The Castilian king had great power, and Castilian Cortes could not legislate, their function was to regulate new taxes.
The Crown of CastileECONOMYThe economy was based on agriculture and stockbreeding. In stockbreeding merino sheep stood out.Wool of high quality was exported, and it was used to textile industry as well.Sheep breeders were important and had privileges, recognized through the creation of the Honourable Council of the Mesta in 1273.Craftsmanship and trade developedas well thanks to the importance of themerino wool.
6 - How did the Crown of Aragón evolve? The Crown of Aragónoriginated in 1137, when theKingdom of Aragón and theCounty of Barcelona merged bydynastic union by the marriageof Ramón Berenguer IV ofBarcelona and Petronilla ofAragón; their titles werecombined in the person of theirson, Alfonso II of Aragón, whoascended to the throne in 1162. This union respected theexisting institutions andparliaments of both territories.
The Crown of Aragón Alfonso II conquered the region of the Ebro valley. In the 13th century, James I the Conquerorexpanded their territories to the mediterranean coastand the Balearic Islands. After him, at the beginning of the 14th century,Peter IV the Ceremonious and his successorscontinued the expansion towards the Mediterraneanarea, arriving to Sicily, Sardinia and Naples.
The Crown of AragónGOVERNMENT AND ECONOMY The Crown of Aragón kept the institutions and individual customs of every kingdom forming part of the Crown. The king of Aragón had to agree with the Cortes of each kingdom to introduce any change. In economy the main activities were agriculture and trade (Mediterranean trade, consulates).