History of Spain• Spain was inhabited by Greeks in the northeast and Phoenicians in the southwest. – Mixed population toward the center of the peninsula.• Conquered by Romans. – Roman culture became imprinted upon Spanish. – Several Roman Emperors were born in Spain.• Conquered by Visigoths. – Visigoth rulers strove to remain separate from the people of Spain, resulting in disloyalty.
History of Spain• Moors invaded Visigoth Spain. – Lack of unity among people contributed to fall. – Visigoth Civil war further weakened the kingdom. – Islamic Emirs established Al-Andulas as their Iberian kingdom.• Pelagius of Asturius began a Reconquista with victory over the Moors in Asturias.• Kingdom of Spain was established in 1492 with the uniting of Castile and Aragon. – Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille. – Sponsored Columbus’ voyage that same year.
Habsburg Spain• Charles I of Spain became Emporer Charles V of The Holy Roman Empire. – Achieved the height of the Spanish Empire. – Divided his will between Spain and its possessions and The Holy Roman Empire.• Philip II of Spain. – Attempted to consolidate power in the Netherlands. • Committed too much of Spain’s resources. • Led to an unsuccessful invasion of England (Dutch supporter) by the Spanish Armada.
Habsburg Spain• Spain retained its position as the world’s most powerful empire, but began decline. – Experienced economic crisis. – Harassed by Barbary Pirates on coasts. • Between 800,000 and 1,250,000 Christians captured and enslaved by Muslims. – Plague of 17th Century killed over 1,250,000 Spaniards.• Philip III established a ten year truce with The Dutch while involved in The Thirty Years War.
Habsburg Spain• Philip IV endured the end of The Thirty Years War. – No clear winner except for France. – Portugal and Catalonia rebelled. • Portugal was forever lost to the Spanish Empire.• Charles II, developmentally disabled son of Philip IV takes the throne. – Left Spain virtually leaderless. – Became a 2nd rank world power. – Habsburg dynasty became extinct.
Fall of the Spanish Empire• Spain’s fall resulted in The War of the Spanish Succession. – Louis XIV of France became the victor.• Golden Age of Spain. – While Spain’s power was dwindling, the arts were flourishing. • Diego Velazquez, El Greco, Tomas Luis De Victoria, Luis De Milan, Alfonso Lobo, Miguel De Cervantes, and Lope De Vega all achieved artistic success during this time. – The Habsburgs were great patrons of the arts.• Spanish rule transitioned to the Bourbon dynasty. – Usually favored the interests of France over those of Spain.