Tourist guide of the Region of Murcia By Sergio Buendía Cros IES RAMÓN Y CAJAL MURCIA
Prehistory.•Prehistory is the period before the beginning of history, ranging from the appearance of human beings until the invention of writing. Prehistory is divided into two stages: the Stone Age and the Age of Metals.- The Metal Age is the period from about the fourth and first millennium BC in Spain. The Metal Age is divided into three stages: Copper Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. - Paleolithic and Neolithic : Although some evidence that show the human presence in the region have been recovered in recent years, since at least 300,000 years ago. Neanderthals, found in the Cabezo Gordo (Torre Pacheco) or La Encarnación (Caravaca). In recent years important vestiges of the Palaeolithic cave art haveappeared in three cavities called George cave, in Cieza . In addition to this, the region of Murcia is one of the most privileged areas of the peninsula in postpaleolític rock art manifestations, whose stations are distributed from the sets of Monte Arabí (Yecla) until the of the Comarca del Noroeste, emphasizing between all the of songs of visor (Yecla), House, the Mojao and uncle Labrador (Lorca) the Peliciego, singing, good air and Calesica (Jumilla), the Barranco de los Grajos .
Homo heidelbergensis- Cave paintingCranium in Atapuerca. Pintura rupestre en lacueva de la paloma(Paleolitico) (Neolitic)
Age of metalsHill of the vineyards in Lorca Mazarron in Cartagena (Spain).Cerro de las viñas en Lorca Mazarron en Cartagena (España)(Bronze age) (The Iron age) Oinochoes ibericos murcia (The Iron age)(Phoenicians and Iberians)
Romanization.- The only source of historians to study the Romanization of the region of Fortuna is archaeology, and there are no references in classical authors in this area, limited mostly to Carthago Nova and its immediate surroundings. The remains located in Fortuna, in the vicinity of the Baths of Fortuna, are dated to the beginning of s. I A.D. Roman Theatre Teatro Romano
The visigoths and the ByzantinesInformation:- After the demise of the Roman Empire, the Visigoths took control of the province,had struggles between Kings and nobles, and the Visigoth nobleman Athanagildrequested assistance to the Byzantine Empire.- Two figures stand out in the politics and culture of the Visigoths: San Leandro andSan Isidoro.- The Byzantines rebuilt the walls of Cartagena.
- Archaeological remains: The Basilica of Algezares. 6th century.
Islam• The name refers to Theodemir, the Visigothic dux who ruled these lands from Orihuela.• During the peaceful period of the Caliphate, from 929 to 1031, the city of Mursiya grew, prospered and acquired importance. This flourishing period it was braking with the taifa period.• After the unification of Al - Andalus by the Almoravids, later emerged the second Taifa kingdoms. At this time, Murcia reached great hegemony through on Mardanish, the Wolf King, who maintained friendly relations with the Kingdom of Castile• In 1172 the Almohads took Murcia, last city they had conquered Al - Andalus. However, after the defeat of las Navas de Tolosa, his power came again in crisis, producing an anti-Almohade uprising in the Valley of Ricote in 1228,
Pool Arab (13th century), the courtyard to theAlcázar of Murcia (region of Murcia, Spain). Museum of Santa Clara.
Muslim Murcia:- At the beginning of 713 Muslim troops, commanded by Abdelaziz,penetrated in the current region of Murcia and defeated the Visigoths.- The autonomy of the Cora of Todmir was suppressed by the Abderraman I,at the end of the 18th century. What originated strong revolts of the Mozarabs.The main wealth at that time was agriculture, increasing the irrigation with thenorias and the walls and tower of Lorca. Noria de Alcantarilla The walls and towers of Lorca.
Christian Murcia- In 1243, the Emir of Murcia signed the capitulation of Alcaraz and became a vassal ofFernando II. In exchange of his protection, Castile obtained an exit to Mediterranean Sea.- Alfonso X began reforestation and land Christianization of Murcia.-The Mudejar revolt against Castile.- The stability was favored by the establishment of military orders.-Also it was organizing the territory. The land in councils corollas land belonging to thekingdom of Murcia were colonised by people from all over the Peninsula and parts ofEurope.-For example the Tower of homage of the castle of Moratalla:
Murcia in the era of the Catholic Kings• Our Kingdom suffered large oscillations due to the war of Granada during the reign of the Catholic monarchs.• The conquest of Granada in 1492 increased the population and there was a development and improvement of economy.• The Mediterranean coast of the Mar Menor was insecure due to the action of the North African.• The Kingdom of Murcia was ruled by the Kings. They pointed out: Pedro Fajardo y Juan Chacón.
16 Th century in Murcia• The war of the communities and the lifting of the moriscos of Granada in 1568 affected to Murcia, especially in Lorca, who was border.• At the end of the 15th century the population grew.• It remained an important group of moriscos population in the region.• Cartagena had an important port of Castile and Lorca, Moratalla Caravaca, mule, Cieza, Jumilla and Yecla were primarily agricultural towns and market centres, it was a wealth and it occupied most of the Murcia.
- The more important industry was the textile, highlight the silk and the officialproduct was aluminies of Mazarron.- 16Th century there were major droughts. Sanctuary of the Holy in Totana Castle of jumilla Santuario de la santa en Totana Astillo de Jumilla
Church of el Salvador in Caravaca.Iglesia del Salvador, en Caravaca de la cruz
Bibliography and web links:- Corence Rure, T., (Coord.), Geografía e Historia, 2º ESO, Madrid, 2007.- http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historia_de_la_Regi%