The Spanish Empire


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The Spanish Empire

  1. 1. The Spanish Empire Hist 140 Theme 3 Part 2 Summer 2011 By: Le Thi My Ho
  2. 2. The Spanish Empire <ul><li>Consisted of the territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania </li></ul><ul><li>Originated during the Age of Exploration and was therefore one of the first global empires </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus  commanded the first Spanish Exploratory Voyage west across the Atlantic Ocean, leading to the Discovery of America, the New World </li></ul><ul><li>In the 16th century, Spain settled the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean, and took over large areas on mainland North and South America overrunning the  Aztecs and Incas </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Spanish Empire <ul><li>  In 1741, a massive victory over Britain at the Battle of Cartagena de Indies  in modern day Colombia prolonged Spain's hegemony in the Americas until the 19th century. </li></ul><ul><li>During the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reached Canada and Alaska , resulting in a settlement on Vancouver Island and the discovery of several archipelagos and glaciers </li></ul><ul><li>The remainder of Spain's empire, namely  Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Spanish East Indies , continued under Spanish control until the end of the 19th century, when most of these territories were annexed by the United States after the Spanish-American War </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reconquista Major Dates <ul><li>711: The Muslim conquered Iberia </li></ul><ul><li>718: Moorish Islamic conquered almost all of the Iberian Peninsula, the Pyrenees, and part of today's southern France </li></ul><ul><li>722: Battle of Covadonga in the north-west of Iberia. The Christian Reconquista begins. </li></ul><ul><li>739: Moorish Garrison driven out of Galicia by Asturian-Galician forces </li></ul><ul><li>800: The Franks complete the reconquest of all of today's southern French territory and the Pyrenees and establish the Spanish March </li></ul><ul><li>801: The Franks reconquer Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>914: Completion of the reconquest of the north-west. Muslims briefly retook Barcelona. </li></ul><ul><li>1085: Toledo reconquered by Castilian forces </li></ul><ul><li>1236: Half of Iberia reconquered by the Christians. Cadiz seized by Castilian forces </li></ul><ul><li>1249: King Afonso III of Portugal takes Faro (in the Algarve), ending the Portuguese part of the Reconquista in 1250. The Emirate of Granada remains the only Muslim state in Iberia </li></ul><ul><li>1300s and 1400s: Marinid Muslims seize control of some towns on the southern coast but are soon driven out </li></ul><ul><li>1492:  Treaty of Granada completes the Reconquista </li></ul>
  5. 5. Spanish “ Golden Age ” “ Siglo de Oro ” <ul><li>Era of The 16 th and 17 th Centuries </li></ul><ul><li>1519 King Charles V elected as sovereign of the Holy Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Charles V became the most powerful man in Europe, his rule stretching over an empire in Europe unrivalled in extent until the Napoleonic era </li></ul><ul><li>“ The empire on which the sun never set” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hasburg Spain <ul><li>The Habsburg dynasty spent the Castilian and American riches in wars across Europe on behalf of Habsburg interests, defaulted on their debt several times, and left Spain bankrupt several times </li></ul><ul><li>The silver and gold whose circulation helped facilitate the economic and social revolutions in the Low Countries, France and England and other parts of Europe helped stifle them in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Charles's involvement in Germany would establish a role for Spain as protector of the Catholic, Habsburg cause in the Holy Roman Empire ; the precedent would lead, seven decades later, to involvement in the war that would decisively end Spain as Europe's leading power </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hasburgs’ Political Goals <ul><li>Access to the resources of the Americas ( gold, silver, sugar ) and products of Asia ( porcelain, spices, silk ) </li></ul><ul><li>Undermining the power of France and containing it in its eastern borders </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining  Catholic Habsburg hegemony in Germany, defending Catholicism against the Protestant Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Defending Europe against Islam, notably the  Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>To spread religion to the unconverted souls of the new world. With conflict between Catholics and Protestants raging in Europe, the new world was an ideal place for more Catholics to be recruited </li></ul>