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History of Spain from 800.000 BC to 1715

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History of Spain.

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History of Spain from 800.000 BC to 1715

  1. 1. HISTORY OF SPAIN: from 800.000b.C to 1715
  2. 2. Many different people, cultures and civilizations have lived in our country since long time ago: as an example, the Homo Antecessor, the Iberians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Visigoths and the Muslims lived and dominated the Peninsula in different periods of our history until the Christian kingdoms came from the North and conquered it along five centuries X to XV).
  3. 3. Isabella of Castilla and Ferdinand of Aragon were the founding fathers of the Hispanic Monarchy. They married in 1469 and carried out the unification of the Peninsula. The major Austrians (Charles I and Phillip II) ruled the Empire and took it to the zenith. Afterwards, with the minor Austrians (Phillip III, Phillip IV and Charles II), crisis arrived. Eventually, when Charles II died the War of Succession was fought and was won by the Borbonic troops, fact that supposed a dynastic change and Spain was set up as modern state. Let’s see how our history led us to the genesis of the Spain of nowadays!
  4. 4. To start with, we must say that the most ancient human remains we have in Spain are those of Atapuerca site, in the North of Spain. They are dated 800.000b.C., and they mean the rise of a new species: the Homo Antecessor. This kind of human was followed by the Homo Heidelbergensis, who lived in the Peninsula in 350.000b.C. The Homo Neandertalensis came in 230.000b.C., and finally The Homo Sapiens came 40.000 years ago.
  5. 5. Skull from an Homo Heildelbergensis individual. Skull from an Homo Neandertalensis. Archaeological site of Atapuerca, where several Homo Antecessor individuals have been found.
  6. 6. CAVE PAINTINGS There are many sites where we can admire the artwork of cave paintings. Among these art the figurative paintings of Altamira stand out as an example. They are full of colour and movement sensation. People who habited Altamira began to paint them more than 30.000 years ago.
  7. 7. Neolitical cultures came to inhabit our country over 5.000 b.C. Then, the most advanced cultures sitted in the region of Valencia. During the third and second millennium metallurgy was introduced: first, the copper was produced and it is related to the development of the megalithic cultures in Andalucia. Then, in 1700 b.C. people started to produce bronze tools.
  8. 8. THE GREAT COLONIZATIONS First, Indo-European people came across the Pyreneans and around 1.000 b.C. Greeks and Romans wrote about them and tell us that they knew how to make iron tools. In addition to this, they worked the land and developed the cattle industry. But the presence of the Phoenicians was more important. They founded their first colonies in the south, were Gadir stands out. They were traders and they had small colonies across the Mediterranean sea.
  9. 9. Phoenician town in Sa Caleta Ibiza Another people, the Greeks, landed in the Peninsula over the VIII century b.C. They founded Emporion (in Girona) and Mainake (Málaga), and they established trade and shared their culture with native cultures, causing the development of the cities and trade.
  10. 10. Remains of Emporion
  11. 11. THE IBERIANS But Greeks and Phoenicians were not alone in the Peninsula: in the East and South of the Peninsula lived the Iberians, who were in touch with the settlers. The Iberians based their economy in growing grapevine, olive tree, and in the development of the metallurgy and pottery. They lived in walled towns, and they know the writing.
  12. 12. Iberian town in Els Vilars (Lleida).
  13. 13. THE ROMANS Then came the Romans. First, fighting the Second Punic War against Carthage and Hannibal, conquering the Mediterranean coast and the south during the 218-197 b.C. After these war, there was a second period of conquest from 197 to 133 b.C. Romans conquered the inside part of the Peninsula. Finally, the third period of roman conquest is finished from 29 to 19 b.C.
  14. 14. THE ROMAN CONQUEST
  15. 15. Theatre of Mérida Romanisation was done during these centuries: its social and economical organisation and its religion were spread. Latifundia and private property were created, slavery was established and the social structure was based in money. Cities grew and roads connected our lands with the rest of the Empire.
  16. 16. THE VISIGOTHS But these splendour shall not last: the fall of the Roman Empire of the West produced a deep crisis in Hispania. The barbarians put pressure on the lands of the Empire and the Francs and Germans began to invade our lands. The slaves became settlers protected by their lords so the economy almost disappeared. Then Visigoths came to the Peninsula starting from 409. They founded a kingdom that integrated the Hispanoromans with the Visigoths and spread the Roman Law. These kingdom lasted until the 711, when Muslims came to the Peninsula.
  17. 17. King Leovigildus Church of San Juan de los Baños
  18. 18. THE MUSLIMS
  19. 19. The Muslims ruled the Peninsula all over seven centuries, from 711 to 1492. We find four different periods inside these centuries: 1. Dependent Emirate (714-756). 2. Independent Emirate (756-929). 3. Caliphate of Cordoba (929-1031). 4. Kingdoms of Taifas and others(1031-1238). 5.The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (1238-1492)
  20. 20. The territories under the Muslims in the Peninsula were named Al-Andalus, and there were a kind of centralized kingdom. The Caliph was the centre of these power and he had power over the economy, armies and warfare, and politics, even over tribunals. There were three provinces: inferior, centre and superior, these last with its capital in Toledo. With the Muslims our lands knew a strong economic and cultural development. Besides, there were ethnical plurality: Mozarabs and Jews lived all together with Muslims.
  21. 21. ALJAFERÍA PALACE IN ZARAGOZA
  22. 22. THE FIRST CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS At the same time, the first Christian kingdoms were created in North of the Peninsula. Kingdom of León, Pamplona, Aragón and Catalonia stopped the Muslim expansion towards the North. These small kingdoms established by Charlemagne were called The Spanish Mark. These kingdoms began their expansion towards the south until 1492, when Muslims were threw out the Peninsula.
  23. 23. From the XII century, two Christian kingdoms increased their power, making big conquests over the Peninsula and Europe: the kingdom of Castilla and the kingdom of Aragón.
  24. 24. MEDITERRANEAN EXPANSION KINGDOM OF ARAGÓN
  25. 25. The society of these kingdoms was composed in first place by a few people who belonged to the Church and to the aristocracy, and they owned the land and had privileges. The peasants formed the main part of the population. They didn’t owned lands but they cultivated them. Muslims and Jews were excluded from the society.
  26. 26. SOCIAL GROUPS IN THE XIII CENTURY
  27. 27. First kingdoms developed the feudal system (IX-XII centuries), afterwards, each kingdom developed its own political system. Castilla had the authoritarian model, in which the king had virtually no limits. Aragón had a deal model in which the king had to agree with the nobles because of their power. These kingdoms continued to develop until 1469, year in which Ferdinand of Aragón and Isabella of Castilla got married and created the Hispanic Monarchy.
  28. 28. THE CATHOLIC KINGS
  29. 29. And what did they do? 1. They joined Castilla and Aragón although both kingdoms kept their own political institutions. 2. They strengthened the central powers of the State. 3. They controlled the Church and standardized the religion. 4. They unified the Peninsula. Defeating the last Muslim kingdom of Granada and owning the kingdom of Navarre. 5. They expanded their lands across the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. 6. They established their diplomacy against the kingdom of France. This changes supposed the rise of the Monarchy and it shall carry on with the Hapsburgs.
  30. 30. THE HAPSBURGS
  31. 31. In 1516 Charles V was proclaimed king of Castilla. In 1519 his bequest comprised the Peninsula, territories in France, the sacred Empire, the kingdom of Naples, and all colonies in America. His trajectory brought him to accomplish a conciliatory politic, religious unity and universal monarchy. He faced inside the Empire the revolt of the Comunidades in Castilla and the revolt of Germanias in Valencia. The foreign affairs were conducted against France, defeating it in 1559. He faced serious religious problems as well, the wars of Reformation. He defeated the Smalkalda League in 1535 and signed the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, giving religious freedom the German princes.
  32. 32. CHARLES V
  33. 33. PHILIP II
  34. 34. His main aim was to defend the Catholicism and to maintain the hegemony in Europe. He fought against the rebellion of Flanders with success and against England, loosing the Armada in 1588. He fought against the Turkish piratery as well, defeating the Turkish fleet in Lepanto in 1571. Finally, he obtained the union with Portugal in 1580.
  35. 35. BATTLE OF LEPANTO
  36. 36. PHILIP III AND PHILIP IV When Philip II died in 1598, it begins the period of the named Minor Hapsburgs. They intended to maintain the power of the empire but little by little the wars and inner conflicts shall fade it out. Philip III faced a financial crisis and bankrupt of 1607, and he expelled the Moriscs in 1609. The foreign affairs were pacified due to the lack of budget.
  37. 37. Philip IV had an aggressive politics starting wars again and the 30 Years War was set up (1618-1648). The Peace of Westphalia caused the independence of Netherlands and the end of the Spanish hegemony, signed in the Peace of the Pyreneans in 1659. On the other hand, through his “valido”, a kind of Prime Minister, intended to unify all the peninsular kingdoms with the Union of Arms. Catalonia refused to accomplish it and in 1640 rebelled against the Hapsburgs. In 1652 the war was over with the victory over Catalonia but Portugal achieved its independency.
  38. 38. CULTURE IN THE XVI AND XVII CENTURIES There were golden centuries for the spanish culture: authors like Garcilaso, Lope de Vega, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Quevedo, Góngora, Cervantes, etc. Painters like El Greco, Velázquez, Ribera, Ribalta, Murillo, etc. and architects like Herrera, thinkers like Francisco de Vitoria, Mariana, etc.
  39. 39. LAS MENINAS
  40. 40. CHARLES II
  41. 41. He is the last Hapsburg king and the last king of the Hispanic Monarchy (1665-1700). He was ill and faced a deep economical crisis and lost many territories due to the wars against Louis XIV. He died without a heir, and two powers fought for the bequest: Philip of the Bourbons and Charles of Austria. These fact caused the Dynastic War (1700-1714).
  42. 42. THE DYNASTIC WAR: CONSEQUENCES These was an international conflict that was won by Philip of France, becoming this way the new king of Spain. The treaty of Utrech was signed in 1714, and it supposed: 1. Spain lost its European possessions. 2. Great Britain became the main sea power in the whole world. 3. Spain was set up as a modern country, centralized, uniformed and under the rules of the absolutism. All kingdoms disappear and the New Decree achieved the consolidation of Spain as an only country. Since then, Spain has remained unified.
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History of Spain.

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