LECTURE ON NON‐LIVING
Natural Sciences 5
NON‐LIVING RESOURCES RESOURCES
• More than 6 billion people now inhabit the
• Materials removed from the Earth and used by
people are called natural resources.
• Scien;sts divide the Earth’s natural resources
into two groups, nonrenewable and
NON RENEWABLE and RENEWABLE
• Nonrenewable Resources cannot be replaced by
– Example: Fossil fuels, Minerals (copper, iron, etc)
• Renewable resources can be replaced by nature
– Example: Wood, Water, Soil (forma;on is an extremely
– Scenario on how slow: Nature can take anywhere
from 500 years to 1000 years to replace every 2.5cm
of topsoil lost
• Even though water is a renewable resource, there
is a limited supply of fresh water
– No life could ever exist in its absence (e.g. 65‐70% of
human body is composed of water)
– Biological importance: universal solvent
– Environmental importance: water cycle
• Most of the Earth’s water, 97%, is in the oceans
• Primary Concern: to maximize availability and
USES OF WATER
• Residen;al or Domes;c: Each person uses
more than 260 liters of water daily
• Agriculture: Irriga;on
• Industry: Product processing
• CLASS SA
– PROPAGATION, SURVIVAL AND HARVEST OF SHELL FISH
• CLASS SB
– RECREATIONAL WATER (BATHING, SWIMMING,
– FISHERIES (BANGUS)
• CLASS SC
– RECREATIONAL WATER (BOATING ETC.)
– SUSTENANCE FISHING
– MANGROVE AS WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES
• CLASS SD
– INDUSTRIAL WATER SUPPLY (COOLING)
• CLASS AA
– PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY
– REQUIRES APPROVED DISINFECTION ONLY
• CLASS A
– COMPLETE TREATMENT REQUIRED (COAGULATION,
SEDIMENTATION, FILTRATION, DISINFECTION)
• CLASS B
– PRIMARY CONTACT RECREATION (BATHING, SWIMMING)
• CLASS C
– PROPAGATION OF FISH
– MANUFACTURING WATER AFTER TREATMENT
• CLASS D
• The Earth’ supply of fresh water is constantly
renewed by the water cycle.
• The water cycle is the movement of water
from the Earth’s surface to the atmosphere
and back to the surface.
• DEVELOPMENT-RELATED CHANGES
• POLLUTING THE WATER CYCLE
– EMMISIONS AND SOLID WASTES
• OVERDRAWING WATER RESOURCES
– DIMINISHING WATER SURFACE
– SALT WATER INTRUSION
NEW SOURCES OF FRESHWATER
• Most of the Earth’s water resources are in
oceans, lakes, rivers and streams
– process by which salt is removed from ocean water
– may supply 20 million liters of fresh water daily.
– could possible be moved to large coastal ci;es and
mined for fresh water
– not sure of the environmental eﬀects the movement
of glaciers might have
• More than 300 billion liters of groundwater are taken
out of the ground daily for use on farms and in
– EXAMPLE: Half the drinking water supply comes form
• It takes hundreds of years for groundwater to
– In many areas of the country it is being used faster than it
is being replaced.
• The levels of groundwater are dropping and lakes and
rivers may dry up.
• Parameters: COD, BOD, Coliforms and Heavy
Metals for household and environmental
• Water‐related Tragedies:
– Semirara (2005)
– Guimaras (2006)
• One‐third of the Earth’s • Land is needed for building
surface is covered by land. ci;es to house the
– Only a small amount of this increasing human
land can be used for farming popula;on.
or for living space.
– All land is not suitable for all
uses. • Land is also needed for
farming and industry.
• Land is used for ci;es, – These needs have to be
carefully weighed and
highways, forests, farms and balanced.
pastures. – If too much is used for cites,
then not enough will be le_
• Even though the popula;on
– Both uses are important.
con;nues to grow, land is a
• LAND: AN ECOSYSTEM
– FOOD BASE
– CRUCIAL LIFE-SUPPORT
• LAND CULTIVATION:
TO MEET FOOD
• PROVIDE RAW MATERIALS
• 14.2 M HECTARES – HIGHEST RATE OF SOIL LOSS (268
CROP CULTIVATION • RP GROSS EROSION RATE
– 2, 046 M METRIC TONS/YEAR
– GRASSLANDS (76.34%)
– AGRICULTURE (22.34%)
• 4% OF TOTAL RP – WOODLANDS (1.32%)
• TOP SOIL LOSS
– LOSS OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER
AND MOISTURE- HOLDING CAPACITY
• 5.2M HECTARES • CAUSES INCREASED RUN-OFF
SEVERELY ERODED • REDUCED INFILTRATION
• POORER SEEDBED QUALITIES
EROSION AND LAND CONVERSION
– SOIL EROSION ON SITE
– SEDIMENTATION: OFF SITE
– MAJOR CAUSE OF SOIL
EROSION AND LAND
DEGRADATION IN UPLAND
• IMPROPER LAND USE
– DESTRUCTIVE PRACTICES
– LAND CONVERSION
– LAND MANAGEMENT
• An increasing popula;on requires an increase in
– New and improved crop varie;es must be developed.
– Farms must be made more produc;ve with beaer
• Land that is unusable for farming must be made
– Irriga;on is one way to do this.
• Land is also needed for raising animals and to
produce food for the animals.
• Crops use up nutrients in the soil.
– When one type of crop is grown on the same land for too long,
deple;on may result.
• Farmers need to alternate crops that extract diﬀerent
– This is known as crop rota;on.
• Contour plowing involves plan;ng crops across the face of a
slope of land.
• In strip cropping, farmers plant strips of low cover crops
between strips of other crops.
– This holds down the soil.
• Regions too dry to support crop growth can
– These grasslands have tradi;onally been used for
– Too many animals on the land results in overgrazing.
• Overgrazing leaves the topsoil exposed to wind
• Dry grasslands then become deserts.
• Deser;ﬁca;on is taking place all over the world.
LAND AND SOIL RECLAMATION
• Some;mes land is disturbed to reach valuable
– It may be possible for the land to be reclaimed, or
restored to its original condi;on.
• Land reclama;on involves several steps.
– First, the valuable topsoil is carefully removed and
– Then the less valuable layers below are stripped away.
• The needed minerals are removed and shipped.
• The disturbed soil must be protected from erosion and
• Then the layers are put back.
– The ﬁnal step is seeding and plan;ng the land.
• A mineral is deﬁned as a naturally occurring
chemical substance found in soil.
– Minerals are used to make a variety of products, from
silver jewelry to aluminum cans.
– Minerals are nonrenewable resources.
– Minerals are either metallic or non metallic.
• Metallic minerals include copper, iron and
• Nonmetallic minerals include quartz, limestone
• To obtain a useful mineral, the minerals must
be mined or removed from the Earth.
• Deposits of minerals that can be mined at a
proﬁt are called ores.
– If the percentage of a mineral in an ore is high, the
ore is called a high‐grade ore.
– Ore are found all over the Earth.
• The Earth’s crust is a storehouse of minerals.
• Iron is the most widely used metal extracted from
• Other substances can be added to iron to make
– Steel is an alloy, or a substance made of two or more
• Chromium is added in the steel making process to
provide resistance to rus;ng.
• Other metals removed from metallic ores
include copper, which is used in electric wires
and aluminum, which is used in cans.
• Gold and silver, used in jewelry, are also found
in metallic ores.
MINING AND PROCESSING OF ORES
• Once mineral deposits have been located, they
must be mined.
• Open‐pit mining can have disastrous eﬀect on
land and groundwater resources.
• Mining the ore is the ﬁrst step.
– To extract the mineral from the ore, impuri;es in the
ore are removed.
– A puriﬁed mineral remains.
– The mineral is then processed and sent to the plant to
make the ﬁnal product.
MINING THE OCEANS
• The minerals in the Earth’s crust have been formed over millions or
billions of years.
– The Earth contains a limited amount of mineral.
– The present rate of mining cannot con;nue or the supply will be
• One answer is to reuse or recycle minerals.
– Another is to ﬁnd new materials to take their place.
– Another possibility is the ocean ﬂoor.
• Many minerals such as manganese, nickel, cobalt, and copper have
been found on the ocean ﬂoor.
• If these deposits can be mined economically, they may provide a
valuable new source of mineral.
RP REMAINS IN THE WORLD’S UPPER
BRACKET IN TERMS OF MINERAL
MINERAL SECTOR : TOP EARNER DUE TO
NUMEROUS PROPOSALS FROM FOREIGN
MINING INDUSTRY : ALSO ONE OF THE
MOST PROBLEMATIC AS FAR AS THE
ENVIRONMENT IS CONCERNED
• INVOLVES EXTENSIVE
• EARTH MOVING
• REPUTATION : MAJOR
POLLUTER OF THE
– Effluent generation
• MAJOR DILEMMA:
– BALANCE BETWEEN
Double lined landﬁll for hazardous wastes, the
ﬁrst of its kind in the country
• CORROSIVE • REACTIVE
– E.G. ACIDS – E.G. CHLORINE BLEACH AND
– CAN EAT THROUGH METAL AMMONIA
– CAN EXPLODE OR CREATE
– BURN SKIN ON CONTACT POISONOUS GAS WHEN
– GIVES OFF VAPORS THAT COMBINED WITH OTHER
BURN THE EYES CHEMICALS
• IGNITABLE • TOXIC
– E.G. PESTICIDES, WEED
– E.G. GASOLINE, KILLERS, HOUSEHOLD
FURNITURE POLISH, PAINT CLEANERS
– CAN BURST INTO FLAMES – CAN POISON PEOPLE, AND
EASILY OTHER LIFE FORMS
– CAN IRRITATE EYES, SKIN – CAN CAUSE ILLNESS OR
AND LUNGS DEATH IF SWALLOWED OR
ABSORBED THROUGH THE
– GIVE OFF HARMFUL SKIN
• RE-USE AND RECYCLE
• SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS
(STORING IN LINE PONDS)
• INCINERATION (CONTROLLED
• DEEP WELL INJECTION
• INNOVATIVE TREATMENT
– THROUGH CONTAMINATED WATER OR FOOD
• DERMAL EXPOSURE
– SKIN ABSORPTION
• ACUTE EXPOSURE
– SINGLE EXPOSURE FOR A SHORT TIME
– SYMPTOMS APPEAR IMMIDEATELY
• CHRONIC EXPOSURE
– OCCURS OVER A MUCH LONGER PERIOD OF TIME
– CANCER, LIVER FAILURE, SLOWED GROWTH AND
THE RESOURCE :
PARUNGAO NS5 2008 43
PARUNGAO NS5 2008 44
OZONE FORMS SO SLOW BUT CAN BE
DESTROYED OH SO EASY
ARPOOL OR RIDE A BIKE
SE OF FUEL‐EFFICIENT
• HOW TO MITIGATE IF
VOID USING EXCESSIVE
A NOT ERADICATE THE
METHODS • YOU CAN HELP!
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PARUNGAO NS5 2008 50
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