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Assessing learning in Instructional Design


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Assessing learning in Instructional Design

  1. 1. Prepared by Leesha Roberts, Instructor II University of Trinidad and Tobago – Valsayn Campus Evaluating Learner Success and the Instructional Design
  2. 2. Rationale for using Evaluating The Learner in Instruction Design
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>What is Assessment and Evaluation? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they differ? </li></ul><ul><li>What role does it play in the ID Process </li></ul><ul><li>When should learner performance be assessed? </li></ul><ul><li>How can assessment be made reliable and valid </li></ul><ul><li>Matching Assessment to Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>How does an instructional designer determine when a learner evaluation has been successful </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Assessment and Evaluation? <ul><li>What is Assessment? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures or techniques used to obtain data about a learner or a product. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Evaluation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process for determining the success level of an individual or a product on the basis of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are they different? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment collects of information, while Evaluation is the analysis of the assessment pieces </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is Assessment and Evaluation <ul><li>Measurement – refers to the data collected which is typically expressed quantitatively (i.e. Numbers) </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments - The physical devices used to collect the data e.g. Rating scales, observation sheets, checklists, objectives tests) </li></ul>
  6. 6. What role does Assessment and Evaluation play in the ID Process <ul><li>Assessment serves as a pedagogical function to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnosing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information from Assessment can be used as a secondary function in evaluation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Developing Performance Measurements <ul><li>Instructional Designers should be capable of developing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other methods of measuring performance </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Approaches to Assessment <ul><li>Cognitive Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Affective Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor Assessment </li></ul>
  9. 9. Basic Principles of Measurement <ul><li>Tests that measure what a person has learned to do are called achievement tests. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of achievement tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs), also known as minimum competency or mastery. Basically it allows everyone to know exactly how well students stand relative to a standard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norm-referenced tests (NRTs). Basically these tests are designed to “reliably” select the best performers </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Reliability and Validity <ul><li>What is Reliability? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner evaluation will provide similar results when it is conducted on multiple occasions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Validity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines whether the learners have achieved the intended outcomes of instruction (based on the intended outcomes of the instruction) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Characteristics of Reliability in Tests <ul><li>Reliable tests have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal Dependency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To increase the consistency of NRT, developers simply increase the number of items on the test. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To increase the consistency of CRT, assess each competency a test covers. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Characteristics of Reliability in Tests (Cont’d) <ul><li>The following are factors that affect the number of items developed when ensuring consistency on a test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences of misclassification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specificity of the competency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources available for testing </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Characteristics of Reliability in Tests (Cont’d) <ul><li>Temporal Dependency – each time a test is administered, it should produce similar results. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Characteristics of Validity in Tests <ul><li>There can be no validity without reliability </li></ul><ul><li>The performance on a CRT must be exactly the same as the performance specified by the objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving validity is not always straightforward. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Matching Assessment to Objectives <ul><li>Instructional objectives are a key element in the development of effective learner assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>A direct relationship must exist between the instructional objectives and the learner assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>How can you determine whether the intended outcome of an instructional objective is a change in knowledge, skill or attitude? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Matching Assessment to Objectives <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Read the following sentence and identify the action. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The learner will be able to list the three major warning signs of a heart attach. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The action in the instructional objective is to list – more specifically, to list the three major warning signs of a heart attack . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cognitive Tests <ul><li>Measures acquisition of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Paper and Pencil tests </li></ul><ul><li>Recitation </li></ul><ul><li>The six types of test that apply to cognitive tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple-choice </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Matching Assessment to Objectives <ul><ul><li>True-false </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill-in, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>essay </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Performance Tests <ul><li>Measures a student’s ability to do something. </li></ul><ul><li>There are five types of Performance Assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance (examination of actions or behaviours, that can be directly observed) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Performance Tests <ul><ul><li>Process (learning ways of doing things such as problem solving and discussing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product (outcome of a procedure is the product which is evaluated against a standard.) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Performance Tests <ul><ul><li>Portfolios (provides the basis for a product and process review) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects (a product assessment which is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, according to Katz(1994) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Performance Process Product Portfolios Projects
  23. 23. Authentic Assessment <ul><li>Focus is on “real” tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Achieves validity and reliability by emphasizing and standardizing the appropriate criteria for scoring such (varied) Products </li></ul><ul><li>“ test validity” depends on whether the test simulates real-world tests of ability </li></ul><ul><li>Involves “ill-structured” challenges and roles that help students rehearse for the complex ambiguities of the “game” of adult and professional life. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Attitudinal Tests
  25. 25. Appropriateness of Items <ul><li>How do you go about writing valid criterion items? </li></ul><ul><li>The taxonomies of objectives include sample test items that can be used as models. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Appropriateness of Items <ul><li>An assessment procedure may be more appropriate for some learning outcomes than others. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several bases on which the logical consistency between assessment and other aspects of design can be determined </li></ul>
  27. 27. Appropriateness of Items <ul><li>These are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching the objectives to the criterion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching the type of assessment to the type of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching the data collection method to the purpose of the assessment </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>A successful learner evaluation provides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data for instructional intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data as to whether the learner has met the instructional objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations based of data gathered </li></ul></ul>Determination of the success of Learner Evaluation