Kemp instructional model


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Kemp instructional model

  1. 1. Instructional Design More Models
  2. 2. Kemp Model for ID <ul><li>Useful for the development of large scale programs (higher education) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple groups must be involved and agree </li></ul><ul><li>Many resources </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous cycle that requires constant planning, design, development and assessment to insure effective instruction </li></ul>
  3. 3. Steps <ul><li>Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>State instructional objectives for the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning </li></ul><ul><li>Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the instructional message and delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Select resources to support instruction and learning activities. </li></ul>9 steps
  4. 4. Kemp Model Jerrold Kemp
  5. 5. Needs Assessment <ul><li>identify the needs relevant to a particular job or task, e.g. problems affecting performance </li></ul><ul><li>identify critical needs, e.g. significant financial, safety, etc. impact </li></ul><ul><li>set priorities for selecting an intervention </li></ul><ul><li>provide baseline data to assess effectiveness of instruction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Methods of Data Collection <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarking  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject matter expert </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Committee Blended </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal group technique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work sampling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DACUM (developing a curriculum) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject matter analysis  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job descriptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal reports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual report </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Dick and Carey ISD <ul><li>Very linear </li></ul><ul><li>Macro-level model useful in structuring the overall design task. </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale application – government/military </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale application – K-12 curriculum development </li></ul>
  8. 9. Stages… <ul><li>Stage 1. Instructional Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional Goal: Desirable state of affairs by instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs Analysis : Analysis of a discrepancy between an instructional goal and the present state of affairs or a personal perception of needs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2. Instructional Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose : To determine the skills involved in reaching a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task Analysis (procedural analysis) : about the product of which would be a list of steps and the skills used at each step in the procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information-Processing Analysis : about the mental operations used by a person who has learned a complex skill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning-Task Analysis : about the objectives of instruction that involve intellectual skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Stage 3. Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose : To determine which of the required enabling skills the learners bring to the learning task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities such as verbal comprehension and spatial orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traits of personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 4. Performance Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose : To translate the needs and goals into specific and detailed objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functions : Determining whether the instruction related to its goals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing the lesson planning upon appropriate conditions of learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guiding the development of measures of learner performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assisting learners in their study efforts. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Stage 5. Criterion-Referenced Test Items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: To diagnose an individual possessions of the necessary prerequisites for learning new skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To check the results of student learning during the process of a lesson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To provide document of students progress for parents or administrators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful in evaluating the instructional system itself (Formative/ Summative evaluation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early determination of performance measures before development of lesson plan and instructional materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 6. Instructional Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose : To outline how instructional activities will relate to the accomplishment of the objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The best lesson design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrating knowledge about the learners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks reflected in the objectives, and effectiveness of teaching strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choice of delivering system. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher-led, Group-paced vs. Learner-centered, Learner-paced </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Stage 7. Instructional Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose : To select printed or other media intended to convey events of instruction . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of existing materials when it is possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for development of new materials, otherwise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role of teacher : It depends on the choice of delivery system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 8. Formative Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose : To provide data for revising and improving instructional materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To revise the instruction so as to make it as effective as possible for larger number of students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One on One : One evaluator sitting with one learner to interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small Group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field Trial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 9. Summative Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose : To study the effectiveness of system as a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted after the system has passed through its formative stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale/ Large Scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short period/ Long period </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Robert Gagne’ <ul><li>Gagne’s principle contributions – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) placed emphasis on the psychology of learning in instructional design, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) saw learning as categorized in terms of learning outcome or knowledge type, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) saw the acquisition of different outcome categories as requiring different internal and instructional processes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) represented learning outcomes in terms of their component parts arranged in a predictable prerequisite relationship, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) identified routine instructional steps that stimulate the various stages of the learning process. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Events of Instruction <ul><ul><li>Gain attention e.g. present a good problem, a new situation, use a multimedia advertisement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the goal: e.g. describe the goal of a lesson (task,...), state what students will be able to accomplish and how they will be able to use the knowledge, give a demonstration if appropriate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate recall of prior knowledge e.g. remind the student of prior knowledge relevant to the current lesson (facts, rules, procedures or skills). Show how knowledge is connected, provide the student with a framework that helps learning and remembering. Tests can be included. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present the material to be learned e.g. text, graphics, simulations, figures, pictures, sound, etc. e.g. follow a consistent presentation style, chunking of information (avoid memory overload, recall information) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>Provide guidance for learning e.g. presentation of content is different from instructions on how to learn. Should be simpler and easier that content. Use of different channel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elicit performance &quot;practice&quot;, let the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, practice skills or apply knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide informative feedback show correctness of the trainee's response, analyze learner's behavior (or let him do it), maybe present a good (step-by-step) solution of the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess performance test, if the lesson has been learned. also give sometimes general progress information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance retention and transfer inform the learner about similar problem situations, provide additional practice. Put the learner in a transfer situation. Maybe let the learner review the lesson. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. A Basic Model of Learning and Memory, Underlying Modern Cognitive Information Processing Theories
  16. 17. The Problem <ul><li>Cognitivism offers explanations of the brain's thinking processes; therefore, it provides instructional designers a useful theoretical basis for approaching instruction, </li></ul><ul><li>Especially instruction that teaches complex cognitive tasks or higher-order thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Critics of cognitivist strategies claim that cognitivist instructional strategies necessitate that the learner perform generic tasks that involve impersonal, sometimes inauthentic forms of communication that do not transfer into &quot;real life&quot; situations </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism is an emerging school of thought growing out of cognitivism that pays specific attention to these issues. </li></ul>1988
  17. 18. Remainder of Class <ul><li>Demonstrate Camtasia with pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Make a short video similar to what the students will do in class. </li></ul><ul><li>Then teams work on their video development. </li></ul>