Ides 210 Session 1 Learner And Context

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Presentation on the first step of the ADDIE process for instructional design.

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  • Ides 210 Session 1 Learner And Context

    1. 1. Instructional Design – IDES 210 Learner and Context Analysis Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    2. 2. Assessing Relevant Learner Characteristics Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    3. 3. Assessing Relevant Learner Characteristics <ul><li>Learners are not all alike, they differ in the ways they learn best. </li></ul><ul><li>As instruction is prepared, these differences must be taken into account. </li></ul><ul><li>To do that successfully, instructional designers should be aware of the characteristics of the targeted learners. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of identifying these specific characteristics is called assessing the relevant characteristics of learners , although we will call it simply learner assessment . </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    4. 4. Assessing Relevant Learner Characteristics <ul><li>Before preparing instructional or training materials, instructional designers should be able to answer this simple question: Who is the intended and appropriate learner? </li></ul><ul><li>The answer helps define the target population, target group , or target audience. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    5. 5. Assessing Relevant Learner Characteristics <ul><li>Traditionally, writers on this subject have advised instructional designers to direct their attention to typical or representative learners so as to maximize the number (and success rates) of people who subsequently participate in instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>However, growing sensitivity to the needs of a typical learners, such as those possessing physical, mental, or learning disabilities, may require instructional designers to pay increasing attention to a broader range of learner characteristics. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    6. 6. When Should Learner Characteristics Be Assessed? <ul><li>Instructional designers should consider the targeted learners at three points in time : </li></ul><ul><li>Before instruction is prepared to meet identified instructional needs and solve specific human performance problems as they exist at the present time . </li></ul><ul><li>Learners who may need to participate in future instruction , perhaps on a regular basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Each time the instruction is delivered. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    7. 7. How Should Learner Characteristics Be Assessed? <ul><li>Instructional designers may assess learner characteristics using either of two methods : </li></ul><ul><li>The derived approach . Can instructional designers identify learner characteristics of obvious importance to a given performance problem, instructional need, or organizational constraint simply by brainstorming? If so, they can derive relevant learner characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>The contrived approach. If learner characteristics cannot be identified easily through the derived approach, then instructional designers should contrive a list of characteristics worthy of consideration. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    8. 8. Developing a Profile of Learner Characteristics <ul><li>A learner profile is a narrative description of the targeted audience for instruction that sets forth key assumptions that will be made about them as instruction is prepared. </li></ul><ul><li>To be adequate, this learner profile should be consistent with the results of the learner assessment and complete enough to be used for making instructional decisions. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    9. 9. Connecting Learning with Teaching Views of learning Behavioral view Cognitive view Constructivist view Current concepts of learning Views of teaching Behavioral manager Decision-making Reflective practitioner Current concepts of teaching Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme Learning Teaching
    10. 10. Views of Learning <ul><li>Behavioral: response acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive: knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist: knowledge construction </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    11. 11. Behavioral Theory <ul><li>Individual progress </li></ul><ul><li>Content sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of learning task </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment keyed to behavior </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    12. 12. Cognitive Theory <ul><li>Structure activity </li></ul><ul><li>Support expert development </li></ul><ul><li>Learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment keyed to activity performance </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    13. 13. Constructivist Theory <ul><li>Share control with students </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Peers and adults assist learner </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment includes self-reflection and learner responsibility </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    14. 14. Why Bother with Theory at all? <ul><li>It is an essential element in the preparation of ISD </li></ul><ul><li>It flows throughout all dimensions of ISD </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the learners and situation, different learning theories may apply </li></ul><ul><li>The Instructional Designer must understand the strengths and weaknesses of each learning theory to optimize their use in appropriate instructional design strategy </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    15. 15. Concepts of Learning <ul><li>Organizing knowledge in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>Developing learners </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Living and learning in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Learning principles </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    16. 16. Views of Teaching <ul><li>Behavioral Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective Practitioner </li></ul>see Clark, C. M., & Peterson, P. L. (1986) Teachers’ Thought Processes. In M.C. Wittrock (Ed.). Handbook of Research on Teaching , 3rd ed. (pp. 255-296). New York: Macmillan. Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    17. 17. Learning Theories & Views of Teaching Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme <ul><li>Behavioral Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Response acquisition </li></ul>Cognitive Theory knowledge acquisition Constructivist Theory knowledge construction Behavioral Manager Decision-Maker Reflective Practitioner Learning Theories Views of Teaching
    18. 18. Concepts of Teaching <ul><li>Learner-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Community-centered </li></ul>see How People Learn (2002). From National Academy Press www.nap.edu Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    19. 19. Multiple Intelligences (BILLNISM) <ul><li>BODILY KINESTHETIC (“Body Smart”) – Has to do with movement and doing. </li></ul><ul><li>INTERPERSONAL (“People Smart”) – Has to do with interaction with others. </li></ul><ul><li>LINGUISTIC (“Word Smart”) – Verbal-linguistic intelligence has to do with words. Spoken or written. </li></ul><ul><li>LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL (“Number/Reasoning Smart” – has to do with logic, abstractions, inductive and numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>NATURALISTIC (“Nature Smart”) – has to do with nature, nurturing and classification. </li></ul><ul><li>INTRAPERSONAL (“Self Smart) – Has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities </li></ul><ul><li>SPATIAL (“Picture Smart”) – Has to do with vision and spatial judgement. </li></ul><ul><li>MUSICAL (Music Smart” – Has to do with Rhythm, music and hearing </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    20. 20. Analyzing Relevant Learning and Work Setting Characteristics Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    21. 21. Analyzing Relevant Learning and Work Setting Characteristics <ul><li>Analyzing the characteristics of a work or learning setting is the process of gathering information about an organization’s resources, constraints, and culture so that instruction will be designed in a way appropriate to the environment. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    22. 22. The Importance of Setting Analysis <ul><li>People cannot apply what they learn—or transfer their learning to improved work or learning performance—if the realities of the work or learning setting are ignored. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    23. 23. Characteristics to Consider <ul><li>Characteristics of the : </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Application environment. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    24. 24. Key Questions to Ask About the Setting <ul><li>Based on what is known about the organization, what characteristics are most relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>How are the characteristics relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>What is known about how each characteristic affects on-the-job and classroom performance? </li></ul><ul><li>How should information about these characteristics subsequently be used in the instructional design process to improve the chances that learners will apply in their real environment what they learned during instruction? </li></ul><ul><li>How should this information influence subsequent steps in the instructional design model? </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    25. 25. What Is Task Analysis? <ul><li>Task analysis : </li></ul><ul><li>Is an intensive examination of how people perform work or learning activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Can sometimes involve a critique and reexamination of work or learning activities as well. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    26. 26. Why Is Task Analysis Important? <ul><li>Task analysis : </li></ul><ul><li>Often describes how the learning or work is carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies work or classroom learning procedures and processes. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    27. 27. Task Analysis <ul><li>Step 1: Analyze the learning task </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Write performance objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Specify teaching strategies </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    28. 28. What Is Content Analysis? <ul><li>Content analysis : </li></ul><ul><li>Is sometimes called subject matter analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Pinpoints issues for instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps make decisions about what to include or exclude from instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides some guidance in determining in what order ideas should be treated. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    29. 29. Why Is Content Analysis Important ? <ul><li>Content analysis is important because it: </li></ul><ul><li>Is a process of identifying the essential information that learners should translate into work-related knowledge, skills, and attitudes through planned instructional experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps instructional designers to play an important role in organizing information in ways that will be meaningful to learners. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    30. 30. Thinking about “Content” <ul><li>Identify learning outcomes using state standards, content area standards, or learning taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Identify other forms of learning </li></ul><ul><li>How has content been taught previously? </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a task analysis for new, complex, or troublesome content </li></ul><ul><li>Determine strategies to cover “content” </li></ul><ul><li>How can media/technology support learning? </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    31. 31. Who Are Your Learners? <ul><li>Learner characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Learning preferences (styles) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive styles </li></ul><ul><li>Special needs </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    32. 32. What is the Context? <ul><li>Work level or School level </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom level </li></ul><ul><li>Personal level </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    33. 33. Context: Work/School Level <ul><li>Ministry standards and Ministry School accountability efforts </li></ul><ul><li>District- School policies </li></ul><ul><li>District- School initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>School climate </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    34. 34. Context: Classroom/Work Level Work/Classroom Management - Physical Issues <ul><li>Physical space </li></ul><ul><li>Furniture and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional materials </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching assistance </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    35. 35. Context: Classroom/Work Level Teaching /Work Assistance <ul><li>Co-teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Special education teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Reading specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Media, computer center, library assistants </li></ul><ul><li>Student teachers, Teacher assistants </li></ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Student assistants </li></ul><ul><li>Job aids </li></ul><ul><li>Job Resources/Equipment </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    36. 36. Context: Classroom/Work Level Classroom/Work Management - Behavior <ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    37. 37. Context: Personal Level <ul><li>Your health and well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Professional habits (what are they?) </li></ul><ul><li>Collegiality (shared power among collegues) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Use of time </li></ul><ul><li>Improvising and “rolling” with events </li></ul><ul><li>Self-improvement </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    38. 38. Analysis: What do you know about the Organization? <ul><li>Full range of the “content” to be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Full range of learners </li></ul><ul><li>Reality of the learning setting, or context (school, classroom, personal) </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    39. 39. Steps in Performing Content Analysis <ul><li>1. Identify the subject or topic. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Investigate what experienced performers know about the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Investigate how people perform the mental (covert) activity by </li></ul><ul><li>a. Asking them. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Observing results of work activity. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Using other methods. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme
    40. 40. Steps in Performing Content Analysis <ul><li>4. Conduct a literature search on the topic. (not always necessary given the situation) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Use results using to develop a model of the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Describe the subject or content. </li></ul>Prepared by: L. Roberts, Instructor II, UTT B. Ed Programme

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