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provides a guide for evaluation process

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  1. 1. Evaluation
  2. 2. What is EVALUATION? <ul><li>A comprehensive way of assessing students’ performance on a course, which may include testing, together with other forms of assessment. In other words, tests are not the only tools a teacher can use to evaluate students. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ways to gather information for evaluation <ul><li>Testing : Formal and informal. Criterion is an arbitrary level. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s assessment : Subjective estimate of the learner’s overall performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous assessment : Combination of the grades received for various assignments during a course. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assessment :The learners evaluate their own performance, using clear criteria and weighting systems (agreed before). </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio : Ss gather a collection of assignments and projects done over a long period of time; this portfolio provides the basis for evaluation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Testing <ul><li>An ‘activity’ whose main purpose is to convey, usually to the tester, how well the testee knows or can do something. (Learning may result from a test, but this is not the main goal). </li></ul>
  5. 5. The relationship between TEACHING and TESTING <ul><li>Separated </li></ul><ul><li>teaching is mainly </li></ul><ul><li>directed to a particular </li></ul><ul><li>test </li></ul><ul><li>school exams </li></ul><ul><li>public examinations </li></ul>TEACHING TESTING
  6. 6. The relationship between TEACHING and TESTING <ul><li>Close </li></ul><ul><li>tests are devices that: </li></ul><ul><li>reinforce learning </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate students’ performance </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate T’s effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>help focus on areas of difficulty </li></ul>
  7. 7. Therefore: <ul><li> TEACHING </li></ul><ul><li>TESTS = valuable devices </li></ul><ul><li> LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>(rather than UNPLEASANT IMPOSITIONS) </li></ul><ul><li>CLOSE relationship is </li></ul><ul><li>EXTREMELY IMPORTANT </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of a good test <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Something reliable is something that works well and that you can trust. </li></ul><ul><li>A reliable test is a consistent measure of what it is supposed to measure. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Can we trust the results of the test? </li></ul><ul><li>Would we get the same results if the tests were taken again and scored by a different person? </li></ul><ul><li>Tests can be made more reliable by making them more objective (controlled items). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Characteristics of a good test <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Something valid is something fair. </li></ul><ul><li>A valid test is one that measures what it is supposed to measure. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Face : What do students think of the test? </li></ul><ul><li>Construct : Am I testing in the way I taught? </li></ul><ul><li>Content : Am I testing what I taught? </li></ul><ul><li>Tests can be made more valid by making </li></ul><ul><li>them more subjective (open items). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics of a good test <ul><li>Practicality </li></ul><ul><li>Something practical is something effective in real situations. </li></ul><ul><li>A practical test is one which can be practically administered. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Will the test take longer to design than apply? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the test be easy to mark? </li></ul><ul><li>Tests can be made more practical by making </li></ul><ul><li>it more objective (more controlled items) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reliability, Validity & Practicality <ul><li>The problem: </li></ul><ul><li>The more reliable a test is, the less valid. </li></ul><ul><li>The more valid a test is, the less reliable. </li></ul><ul><li>The more practical a test is, (generally) the less </li></ul><ul><li>valid. </li></ul><ul><li>The solution: </li></ul><ul><li>As in everything, we need a balance (in both exams and exam items) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Testing... <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>To find out what students have learnt </li></ul><ul><li>To find out what students can do </li></ul>
  13. 13. Testing in the Communicative Classroom <ul><li>more than one type of test is needed (skills) </li></ul><ul><li>main focus: </li></ul><ul><li>LANGUAGE is used for COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>tests must include: </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking activities (integrating the skills </li></ul><ul><li>Reading as it happens in real life) </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, scoring is more subjective: </li></ul><ul><li>VALID, but not always RELIABLE. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Criteria for student evaluation <ul><li>Criterion-referenced: how well a learner is performing in relation to a fixed criterion , based on an estimation of what is reasonable or desirable at a certain point in their development. </li></ul><ul><li>Norm-referenced: how well the learner is performing in relation to </li></ul><ul><li>the group . </li></ul><ul><li>Individual-referenced: how well the </li></ul><ul><li>learner is performing in relation to </li></ul><ul><li>his/her previous performance . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Products from evaluation <ul><li>Feedback : Information that is given to the learner about his/her performance of a learning task, usually with the objective of improving this performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment : Informing the learner on how well or badly he/she has performed. (e.g. grades, “good”, “no”, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Correction : Specific information provided on aspects of the learner’s performance. MUST include information on what the learner did right as well as wrong , and, most importantly, why . </li></ul>