Guth_Helm Skype and the Web


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Presentation by Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm at the Eurocall CMC SIG Workshop in Leon Spain: Skype and the web: how learners develop new online literacies to promote learning in telecollaboration

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  • Guth_Helm Skype and the Web

    1. 1. Skype and the web: how learners develop new online literacies to promote learning in telecollaboration Sarah Guth & Francesca Helm University of Padova, Italy
    2. 2. <ul><li>„ In the dynamically evolving and turbulent global culture, multiple literacies necessitate multicultural literacies , being able to understand and work with a heterogeneity of cultural groups and forms, acquiring literacies in a multiplicity of media , and gaining the competences to participate in a democratic culture and society.“ </li></ul><ul><li>(Kellner 2002:166) </li></ul>
    3. 5. Multiple dimensions of Telecollaboration 2.0 new online literacies ICC savoir... Language learning (CEFR) Operational ‘ technical stuff’ computer literacy information literacy participation literacy new media literacies code-switching apprendre/ faire comprendre Spoken production Spoken interacion Written production Aural comprehension Written comprehension Operational ‘ ethos stuff’ willingness to explore, learn from, participate in, create, and collaborate and share in online communities. etre Autonomy Motivation Willingness to communicate. Cultural knowledge of literacy practices and appropriate ways of communicating in online contexts savoirs Linguistic competence Sociolinguistic competence Pragmatic competence Critical how and why new information and communication technologies are used s’engager Critical Discourse Analysis
    4. 6. Padova-Dickinson Exchange (2 nd iteration) 13 June 2008 EDEN Annual Conference 2008 Lisbon, Portugal tools modes of communication Interculture wiki (exchange platform) asynchronous text Skype synchronous oral / text other, e.g. blogs, Facebook, email asynchronous text Padova Dickinson No. 31 28 Majors 22 – MA in International Communications Studies 9 - Engineering Mixed Exchange Course 22 – B2-C1 level 9 – B1-B2 level B1 level, 3rd semester Mean age 23 18
    5. 7. Exchange goals & tasks <ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the C’s set by the American Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21 st Century: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Culture/s </li></ul><ul><li>Comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>9 1-hour weekly Skype sessions in the respective language-labs based on predetermined topics </li></ul><ul><li>preparatory questions on the wiki before each synchronous session </li></ul><ul><li>development of a bi-lingual wiki page in groups of 4 (weeks 3-7) </li></ul>
    6. 8. Why wiki and <ul><li>Skype: a multimodal online application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video or voice chat and synchronous text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows communication between multiple users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can instantly share links, files, images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free recording software – Pamela </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wiki: a tool for collective authoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous editing and commenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for upload of multimedia files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s public, free and open </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of both tools requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multimodal communicative competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiliteracies </li></ul></ul>
    7. 9. Research questions <ul><li>How do learners use the different modes of communication available (text chat whilst engaging in voice chat) in Skype? </li></ul><ul><li>Do learners make use of other online resources available to them whilst chatting in Skype? </li></ul><ul><li>For what purposes do learners use these resources and what added value, if any, do they bring? </li></ul>In the end, what, if anything, can we teach our students, or how can we develop tasks, to promote these online literacies?
    8. 10. Research methods: action research
    9. 11. Data <ul><li>survey results </li></ul><ul><li>audio files </li></ul><ul><li>student transcripts of audio files </li></ul><ul><li>student analyses of audio files </li></ul><ul><li>text chat transcripts </li></ul><ul><li>ICC self assessment </li></ul><ul><li>wiki pages: collaborative project & learner diary </li></ul><ul><li>teacher observations </li></ul>
    10. 12. Suburbs: preparatory questions
    11. 13. Example 1: John and Anna <ul><li>[13/11/2008 17.08.45] anna says: palazzi [13/11/2008 17.11.12] anna says: poste [13/11/2008 17.14.42] anna says: spacciatori [13/11/2008 17.16.28] anna says: malissimo [13/11/2008 17.17.33] anna says: double rooms [13/11/2008 17.18.56] John says: carlisle [13/11/2008 17.21.10] anna says: 15000 [13/11/2008 17.25.18] John says: buroughs [13/11/2008 17.27.30] anna says: boroughs [13/11/2008 17.28.50] anna says: ghetto </li></ul>
    12. 14. Example 2: Kimberly and Maria <ul><li>[13/11/2008 16.49.55] Maria says: allora [13/11/2008 16.49.59] Maria says: io vivo in città [13/11/2008 16.50.08] Maria says: e quindi non conosco molto bene [13/11/2008 16.50.14] Maria says: la situazione nelle periferie [13/11/2008 16.50.17] Maria says: però penso [13/11/2008 16.50.31] Maria says: in città [13/11/2008 16.50.42] kim says: in New York [13/11/2008 16.50.50] Maria says: i nomi delle città non si traducono [13/11/2008 16.51.04] Maria says: :) [13/11/2008 16.51.30] kim says: :O </li></ul>
    13. 15. Example 3: Kimberly and Maria <ul><li>[13/11/2008 16.53.28] Maria says: perchè in italia ci sono molti immigrati [13/11/2008 16.53.34] Maria says: ma non siamo abituati [13/11/2008 16.53.44] Maria says: e quindi la gente ha molta paura [13/11/2008 16.53.52] Maria says: ma sono pregiudizi </li></ul>
    14. 16. Teacher observations (Italy) <ul><li>students blush, gesticulate and are very expressive, e.g. lots of smiling, even though there’s no video </li></ul><ul><li>students often have multiple text chats going on at the same time with their ‘in-class’ peers, often in the local dialect </li></ul><ul><li>students are very focused on what they are doing and are not easily distracted by the sounds and movements of their peers around them </li></ul><ul><li>almost all take notes on pen and paper when Skyping with their peers </li></ul>
    15. 17. Preliminary findings <ul><li>Text chat is used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to resolve technical glitches with audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to overcome misunderstandings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to check understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to teach one another L2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to share links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to say things they don’t want others in the room to hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to use emoticons to express emotions like embarassment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other online resources used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>online dictionaries, to look up words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Web, to find answers to questions, to share information, to illustrate ideas and concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wiki pages, to overcome pauses and work on collaborative project </li></ul></ul>
    16. 31. Conclusions … so far <ul><li>Learners DO use the different modes of communication available (text chat whilst engaging in voice chat) in Skype, albeit in different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>SOME learners make use of other online resources available to them whilst chatting in Skype. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire results indicate that most students find that using the web during intercultural exchange provides added value, but many find the multitasking involved challenging. </li></ul><ul><li>Task design should incorporate development of online literacies, and not take them for granted. </li></ul>
    17. 32. Further work <ul><li>Establish method for researcher transcription of audio files </li></ul><ul><li>Find effective way to integrate information about the multitasking that occurs during skype chats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen capture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan teacher interventions on multiliteracies for next iteration </li></ul><ul><li>Start exploring cultural and critical dimensions of our framework </li></ul>