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Adama day 2_sarah_done


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Presentation from Day 2 of the CALLing on Ethiopia workshop at ASTU in Adama, Ethiopia.

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Adama day 2_sarah_done

  1. 1. CALLing onEthiopia:Computer AssistedLanguage Learningat AdamaUniversity Sarah Guth, University Language CenterDay 2: Francesca Helm, Dept. ofTeaching Culture Political Sciencethrough CALL University of Padova, Italy
  2. 2. 2 31/10/2012Do you agree? Language teaching can no longer make do with focusing on the target language and target countries – and on cultures as territorially defined phenomena. […] Apart from developing thestudents‟ communicative (dialogic) competencein the target language, language teaching ought also as far as possible to enable students to develop into multilingually and multiculturally aware world citizens. (Risager, 2007 p. 1) CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  3. 3. 3 31/10/2012What does „culture‟ mean? In small groups come up with a definition of the word „culture‟. CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  4. 4. 4 31/10/2012 US definition of „culture‟? The Standards for Foreign Language Learning developed by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, 1996) 5 C‟s for foreign language learning:  Communication  Connections  Comparisons  Communities  Culture The „Culture‟ standard, or the three Ps of culture: practices, perspectives and products  practices refer to “patterns of behavior accepted by a society and deal with aspects of culture such as rites of passage, the use of forms of discourse, the social „pecking order‟, and the use of space” and derive from  perspectives, which are “the traditional ideas and attitudes [...] of a culture” ( p. 50)  products can be tangible or intangible, but it is important for students to be aware that whatever form a product takes, “[...] its presence within the culture is required or justified by the underlying beliefs and values (perspectives) of that culture” (p. 51). CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  5. 5. 5 31/10/2012EU definition of „culture‟? the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) (Council of Europe, 2001) aims to provide a European standard for the teaching and assessment of foreign languages in order to promote mobility throughout the multicultural, multilingual European Union. In this document, the key to developing plurilingualism and pluricultural competence is know whatThe document Do you interculturality. the states that in learning a foreign language:  CEFR, or Common “the learner does not simply acquire two distinct, unrelated ways of acting and communicating. The language learner European Framework of becomes plurilingual and develops interculturality. The linguistic and cultural competences in respect of each language are Reference, is? modified by knowledge of the other and contribute to intercultural awareness, skills and know-how. They enable the individual to develop an enriched, more complex personality and an enhanced capacity for further language learning and greater openness to new cultural experiences.” (p. 43) CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  6. 6. 6 31/10/2012Intercultural Competence Notion of intercultural competence originally developed within the context of the world of business, e.g. Hofstede‟s cultural dimensions to enable business people to work effectively with people from other cultures. Hofstede developed 4 dimensions to characterize national cultures:  Power distance (PDI)  Individualism (IDV)  Masculinity/Femininity (MAS)  Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  7. 7. 7 31/10/2012 Hofstede‟s Dimensions Power distance (PDI): H=4, L=2  the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally Individualism (IDV): H=0, L=6  In Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to „in groups‟ that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.How do you t Masculinity/Femininity (MAS): H=6, L=0 Ethiopia will ra  A high score (masculine) = society will be driven by competition, these dimensi achievement and success, with success being defined by the winner / best in field; a low score (feminine) = the dominant values in society or low High are caring for others and quality of life Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI): H=3, L=3  the way that a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways. CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  8. 8. 8 31/10/2012 CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  9. 9. 9 31/10/2012Critical Analysis Does this fit with what you think and feel about your country? What might the limitations to this approach be? CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  10. 10. 10 31/10/2012Intercultural Communicative Competence Michael Byram (1997) expanded on this concept within the context of foreign language learning and moved beyond simply „intercultural competence‟ to „intercultural communicative competence‟.  In other words, Byram‟s model of ICC places importance on the communicative aspect of intercultural competence CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  11. 11. 11 31/10/2012a culture? the culture? these documents refer to:  „a culture‟, „the culture‟, „that culture‟ and target culture  this reflects a notion which is popular in many L2 teaching and learning contexts where one language is still considered to equal one culture and where culture is associated with a nation (e.g. French culture is that of France) Do you feel like you could say there is a culture or the culture in Ethiopia? CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  12. 12. 12 31/10/2012Does language = culture? In strong versions of this national paradigm, the standard language of the native speaker is idealized and the language learner is seen as aspiring to the native model including what is considered to be appropriate behavior in the target culture. This process of acculturation assumes that there is indeed a standard language and, consequently, a standard culture. Do you feel you could say there is „a‟ language and „a‟ culture in Ethiopia? CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  13. 13. 13 31/10/2012Does this make more sense? New paradigms such as English as a Lingua Franca (Seidlhofer, 2009) and the transnational paradigm (Risager, 2007) challenge this native speaker model and place the learner in a local and/or global context, not the target, national context. L2 learners, who are complex, often multilingual subjects with multiple identities, appropriate the language(s) and cultures studied in a way that they find comfortable, without losing or disguising their original identity/ies. CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  14. 14. 14 31/10/2012Is English the future? “monoglot English graduates face a bleak eonomoic future as qualified multilingual youngsters from other countries are proving to have a competitive advantage over their British counterparts” (Graddol) What advantages do you think you and your students might have over native speakers of English in an ever-globalized world? CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  15. 15. 15 31/10/2012Krachu‟s 3 circles: do you agree? CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  16. 16. 16 31/10/2012What role does EFL play in Ethiopia?  We don‟t know, so we ask you:  English (at least for now) is the language of international communication and research – is this relevant to your students?  What role does Jamaican English (Patwa) or other types of English play in schools in Ethiopia?  What role do different „Englishes‟ play in Ethiopian society? Patwa? Indian English? British English? US English?  Do people react differently depending on the „English‟ people use?  Is any specific „English‟ regarded as more important than others? If so, how can you fight this? CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  17. 17. 17 31/10/2012What about ELF? What‟s ELF? – English as a Lingua Franca:  Situations in which English is used as the language of communication, but the majority, or all, of the participants are non-native speakers of English. This is becoming more and more commonplace both in „spare time‟ where people participate in conversations on social networks, using English to communicate their ideas. If the English is not accurate, but effective from a communicative point of view, do we still promote it? CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  18. 18. 18 31/10/2012Just a few questions before we break…  What does culture learning entail besides acquiring knowledge?  What impact have the Internet and Web 2.0 had on languages and cultures?  How do you think the Internet can be used to integrate culture learning into the language classroom?  How aware do you think students are of their own cultural identity and the influence of language and location (be it physical or online) on their culture?  What considerations do teachers need to take into account when planning to use CALL for culture and language teaching?  What skills and competencies do teachers and learners need to engage in culture learning through CALL? CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  19. 19. 19 31/10/2012Afternoon workshop First, let‟s see what you think: Word Associations Go to this site and write down the first 1-5 words that come to mind. If you can do it in English, please do so, if not do it in your native language and we can translate. CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  20. 20. 20 31/10/2012 CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  21. 21. 21 31/10/2012Word association task- compare the responses - are they similar or not? - What words appear more frequently in one list rather than another? - What words appear only in one list? - Do these words generate positive, negative or neutral associations? CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  22. 22. 22 army 31/10/2012 ITALY GERMANY JORDAN USAwar, nation, war, Jews killing Strongdeath Jews power Bravesafety, Conflict the power of forceful, braveAfghanistan, weapons state moneydeath Jesus just a name war, killing,violenza "Gods chosen Liberation bombs, death,duty, courage, people", dead Power Overextendedwar sea security, bordertoday wars are bible Japanuseless Jews, Muslims, israeli ArmyWar Christians killing people inmilitary, Jerusalem Gazaorganization, trouble War,war difficult subject power,securitysoldier,war for GermansErroruniform,generalDanger, CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth andexploitation Francesca Helmnecessary
  23. 23. 23 discrimination 31/10/2012 ITALY GERMANY JORDAN USAloneliness, blacks, Bush blacks andingiustizia attack, awful whitesNorth, South segregation very bad thing Acts of hatredracism,violence habits, Destruction bad,ignorance tradition, USA, Israel unnecessaryprejudice rights black, Muslims immigration,Racism-Sexual prejudice black and Colombiaapartheid happens to white police, anti-racism often United Nations semitism,immigrants mobbing, the worst thing- genocideage, nationality prejudices ---bad people - unjustgender being gay/ ----vanity-immigrants, womenwomen Nazi regime,social and Martin Luthereconomic one KingStadium stupid,Women Blacks understandingWeak CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  24. 24. 24 education 31/10/2012 ITALY GERMANY JORDAN USAUniversity, school school, learn, great universityUniversity, family childhood important collegeschool, teacher school, teacher, good future Importantteachers books what we have in smart, intelligent,knowledges university, school the future necessarySchool-Family- Study fees Future necessary, time-Study important My passport consumingschool university way to broaden university,compute diplomascuola, famiglia one´s horizon r Advancementculture growth possibilities, my universityenrichment children knowledgegraduation Job, Chances, soul foodRiforma Gelmini, Money understanding lifepochi soldi hard work, smartpeoplepolite, teaching, knowledge,respect basics for becoming a socialized person, great opportunity CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  25. 25. 25 identity 31/10/2012 ITALY GERMANY JORDAN USAculture, names, nationlity, country Palestinian personstyle id-card land myselfindividual, langugae, culture important thing Uniquecountry, habits Private just a name true, menationality,religion character, culture, Islam confidencepersonal attitude, moral Islam name, image,character culture friends, family, Palestinian, Selfbackground things I like culture,nameCulture-Personality Nationality, Palestinemulti Cultural Jordanaian Arabwhat I am Background,name, character Languagemyself,trademark searching for itCulture culture, history,document, experiencenational part of one´scard personality,I.D Card flexibility CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth andchanging Francesca Helm
  26. 26. 26 immigration 31/10/2012 ITALY GERMANY JORDAN USAdifferent culture, difficulty travel, new beginning lebanees Mexicointegration, Padua, problems, integration homeless my ancesterscultures me bad idea Jobsculture,boatsrefuge wars ellis island who think that the hard-working, smarttoo many cultural differences other world is the United States,problemi,scontri di idee, Turkish people best discriminationdiscriminazione welcome forced day laborcrime, integration, America Looking for another legal?integrazione, forza lavoro integration, minorities chancenon-Eu citizen, Albanian,integration integration, culture illegal immigration,integration,society clash displacement ofBrothers important, sometimes Palestiniansdiscrimination, illegal difficult Franceto protect language problems, not goodpoor countries insecurity, some one who needsa problemclandestine, africa disadvantage assistance, harshpoverty, loneliness, new opportunities conditions, fatigueintegration, differentculturesillegality, difficult lifeperson, wish, escapeillegal, exploitationAlone Difficulties CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth andDiscrimination Francesca Helmnord africa afghanistancina
  27. 27. 27 individualism 31/10/2012 ITALY GERMANY JORDAN USAsolitude extraordinary, good being originalidentity,own ideas strange not bad very goodcommunity moral, society, it causes bad Uniquenessloneliness no joy freedom imprestion creativeSolitude-Mind fake every one do searching, finding,egoismo personal what he or she believingselfishness characteristics want me, personalityloneliness character self-reliance Autonomywhat I want to be freedom Badideologia libertà important freedom,Independent, uniqueness selfishnesssocial position being myself, being myselfautonomy,indepe friends with myself no cooperationndence identity, variety, isolation, griefEvil important not toour society losemakes problems self-confidence,freedom, choose doing whatever youmodern society want CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth andWest Widespread important Francesca HelmDownfall freedom, choice, otherness ambition, originality
  28. 28. 28 power 31/10/2012 ITALY GERMANY JORDAN USAresponsability, strong, politics weapon governmentfame, loneliness, money, relations, family citizensdrug politics every thing in life MoneyGovernment, USA something will strong, glorymafia, US politicians, economics disapear in the militaryeconomics,politics Politics future Moneytoo few people dangerous Need controlstrength control female Power CorruptsStrenght-Politics USA, war, money America, Nuclearwomen USA powerpericolosità responsibility, danger educationsuccess money Strength, Decisions Oilpolitics and money strong, energy Knowledgeabuse, money, overrated, especially double-edgedmanage by America swordOpportunity position, money,Usa, force mediaaction, money, unbalanced,force capitalismUnited States, war CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  29. 29. 29 31/10/2012Mapping stereotypes What about stereotypes? What stereotypes do you have of different countries? What stereotypes do you think they have of your country? What is the foundation of these stereotypes? CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm
  30. 30. 30 31/10/2012Make a taskHere are several online resourcs regardingmapping stereotypes. In groups develop atask (pre-task, task, post-task) using theseresources. Reading: Stereotype maps: Is that what they think of us? (article from the Guardian newspaper) Speaking/Discussion: maps on the website (picture maps of different parts of the world seen by different peoples) Listening: an interview with the designer CALLing on Ethiopia, Sarah Guth and Francesca Helm