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  1. 1. Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 Whereas a notification in exercise of the powers conferred by Sections 6, and 25 of the Environment(Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986) was published in the Gazette vide S.O. 746 (E) dated 16th October1997.1. SHORT TITLE AND COMMENCEMENT These rules may be called the Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998. They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the official Gazette.2. APPLICATION These rules apply to all persons who generate, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose orhandle biomedical waste in any shall be the duty of every occupier of an institution generatingbiomedical waste which includes a hospital, nursing home, clinic, dispensary, veterinary institution, animalhouse, pathological laboratory, blood bank take all steps to ensure that such waste is handled without anyadverse effect to human health and the environment.3. TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL Bio-medical waste shall be treated and disposed of in accordance with Schedule I, and in compliance with the standards prescribed in Schedule V. Every occupier, where required, shall set up in accordance with the time-schedule in Schedule VI, requisite bio-medical waste treatment facilities like incinerator, autoclave, microwave system for the treatment of waste, or, ensure requisite treatment of waste at a common waste treatment facility or any other waste treatment facility.4. SEGREGATION, PACKAGING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE Bio-medical waste shall not be mixed with other wastes. Bio-medical waste shall be segregated into containers/bags at the point of generation in accordance with Schedule II prior to its storage, transportation, treatment and disposal. The containers shall be labeled according to Schedule III. If a container is transported from the premises where bio-medical waste is generated to any waste treatment facility outside the premises, the container shall, apart from the label prescribed in Schedule III, also carry information prescribed in Schedule IV. Biomedical waste shall be transported only in such vehicle as may be authorised for the purpose by the competent authority as specified by the government. No untreated bio-medical waste shall be kept stored beyond a period of 48 hours Provided that if for any reason it becomes necessary to store the waste beyond such period, the authorised person must take permission of the prescribed authority and take measures to ensure that the waste does not adversely affect human health and the environment.5.PRESCRIBED AUTHORITY The Govt of every State and Union Territory shall establish a prescribed authority with suchmembers as may be specified for granting authorisation and implementing these rules. If the prescribedauthority comprises of more than one member, a chairperson for the authority shall be designated andappointed within one month of the coming into force of these rules that shall function under the supervisionand control of the respective Government of the State or Union Territory and grants authorisation.It mayeven refuse.
  2. 2. 6. AUTHORISATION Every occupier of an institution generating, collecting, receiving, storing, transporting, treating,disposing and/or handling bio-medical waste in any other manner fills application in Form 1 for grant ofauthorisation shall be accompanied by a fee as may be prescribed by the Government of the State or UnionTerritory.7. ANNUAL REPORT Every occupier/operator shall submit an annual report to the prescribed authority in Form 11 by 31January every year, to include information about the categories and quantities of bio-medical wastes.8. MAINTENANCE OF RECORDS All records shall be subject to inspection and verification by the prescribed authority at any time. SCHEDULE I : CATEGORIES OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE S. No. WASTE CATEGORY TREATMENT 1. Human Anatomical Waste Incineration / deep burial 2. Animal Waste Incineration / deep burial 3. Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste Local autoclaving / microwaving / incineration 4. Waste sharps disinfection (chemical treatment/auto claving/micro-waving and ultilation/ shredding 5. Discarded Medicines and Cytotoxic drugs Incineration /destruction and drugs disposal in secured landfills 6. Solid Waste Incineration autoclaving /microwaving 7. Solid Waste (from disposables ) disinfection by chemical treatment autoclaving /microwaving and multilation /shredding 8. Liquid Waste disinfection by chemical treatment and discharge 9. Incineration Ash disposal in municipal landfill 10 Chemical Waste Chemical treatment and discharge into drains for liquids and secured landfill for solids. SCHEDULE II : COLOUR CODING AND TYPE OF CONTAINER FOR DISPOSAL OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTES Colour coding Type of Container – I Treatment options as per Schedule I Waste Category Yellow Plastic bag Cat. 1, Cat. 2, and Incineration /deep burial Cat. 3,Cat. 6. Red Disinfected container / plastic Autoclaving /Microwaving /Chemical Treatment bag Cat. 3, Cat. 6, Cat.7. Blue/White Plastic bag /puncture proof Cat. Autoclaving /Microwaving / Chemical Treatment and destruction/ translucent 4, Cat. 7.Container shredding Black Plastic bag Cat. 5 and Cat. 9 Disposal in secured landfill and Cat. 10. (solid)
  3. 3. INCINERATOR : Types, Specifications and Time Cycles of Bio-Medical WasteIncinerators Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substancescontained in waste materials. Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat.The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste, and may take the form of solid lumps orparticulates carried by the flue gas. Incineration has particularly strong benefits for the treatment of certainwaste types in niche areas such as clinical wastes and bio medical wastes and certain hazardous wasteswhere pathogens and toxins can be destroyed by high temperatures. The following are types of incinerators: ROTARY KILN FLUIDIZED BED LIQUID INJECTION MULTIPLE HEARTH CATALYTIC COMBUSTION WASTE-GAS FLARE DIRECT-FLAME ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS SPECIFICATIONS: Rotate wastes in rotary kiln, enabling thorough mixing with air Operating temperature from 800 - 1400 degree Celcius Has great resistance to high temperatures Can handle liquid, sludge, solid, gas in large quantities Can handle batch modes like barrels and allows more flexibility than continious modes Can operate in batch mode, allowing more flexibility than continuous mode. Capacity of Medical waste estimated at 24 MJ/kg (5735 kCal/kg) Inside Diameter : 1.65/1.4 -3.0 cms Rotary Speed : 0.52 1.55 r/min Power Equiped : 15 – 55 kw FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATORS SPECIFICATIONS: vessel contains inert granular material that expands and acts theoretically as a fluid when gases are injected up through the material bed from nozzles Operating temperature from 1400-1800 ° F ( 750 -1000 ° C ) Compared with the bubbling fluidized bed with air speed of lm/sec, the CFB has an air speed of 4-6 m/sec. The required static pressure of the fluidizing (combustion air) blower is low, consuming less power. The bubbling fluidized bed needs 25-30kPa compared to 15-25kPa of circulating type. The medium intensifies contact, mixing and blending of air, waste and heat, raising the combustion efficiency and enabling low air ratio combustion. It is easy to adjust the amount of circulating particles by controlling the primary air. Local temperature drop or surge can be prevented.
  4. 4. The heat carried back by the circulating particles helps dry the sludge, preventing temperature dropin the lower part of the furnace, requiring no auxiliary fuel. LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATORS SPECIFICATIONS:Wastes are sent through nozzles and atomized into small droplets to allow for the greatest possiblemixing with air.Operating temperature from 1200-3000 F.Feed must act as a liquid having a viscosity less than 10,000SSUSolids entered should be melted and pumped.Can completely combust non combustibles like contaminated water, along with organic combustiblematerial.Has horizontal or vertical configuration. MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR SPECIFICATIONS:consist of vertically shaped hearths, and are Primarily used for sewage sludge. operated from 1400-1800 ° F ( 750 - 1000 ° C ).Catalytic combustion, waste-gas flare and direct flame incinerators are all for gases.Catalytic combustors use a catalyst and are designed for low organic concentration wastes. Waste-gas flares are used for non-hazardous waste that has high organic content.Direct flame incinerators operate from 1000-1500 f and are used when waste gas contains particles.The ideal wastes for this kind of disposal are toxic and hazardous wastes such as chlorinated matter,pcbs,and organometallicsCOMBUSTION INCINERATORS-OXYGEN USING SYSTEMS SPECIFICATIONS:Waste and storage handlingWaste feedingCombustionSteam and electricity generationAir pollution controlAsh residue handling : 3% fly ash (including flue gas residues)calorific value as high as possible; Volatile matter >40%; Fixed carbon <15%; Total inert <35%Moisture content : As minimum as possible; <45%Capacity : 25 TO 120 TONS/DAYTemperature : At least 1 sec for flue gas at not less than 980oC in combustion zone COMBUSTION STAGES Drying moisture is evaporated. Devolatilization – combustible volatiles are released. Ignitions – volatiles are ignited in the presence of o2 Combustion of fixed carbon volatile matter is completely combusted and fixed carbon is oxidised to co2
  5. 5.  TYPES OF COMBUSTION INCINERATORS MASS BURN-MOST COMMON o WATER WALL FURNACE o REFRACTORY FURNACE o ROTARY KILN FURNACE FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTORNON-COMBUSTION TECHNIQUES-OXYGEN DEFICIENT INCINERATOR SPECIFICATIONS: BIOGASIFICATION Mixed solid waste is placed into an anaerobic digestor to reduce its Volume and to produce methane. The process involves:  preprocessing-the organic material is separated from the waste stream, shredded, and placed into a slurry  decomposition-the slurry is placed in an anerobic digestor for 5-30 days  gas collection-methane gas is collected and refined for combustion  less voluminous digested product for disposal PYROLYSIS Uses heat to decompose the mixed solid waste in an O2-deficit or O2-free Environment. The products of pyrolysis include combustible gases and Various solids that are difficult to manage. MUNICIPAL INCINERATORS SPECIFICATIONS: More common Less consistent waste stream Pre treatment like shredding, drying is usually necessary Batch or continuously loaded.CONCLUSION: Any solid, fluid and liquid or liquid waste, including its container and any intermediate product,which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunisation of human being or animals, in researchpertaining thereto, or in the production or testing of biological and the animal waste from slaughter housesor any other similar establishment. All biomedical waste are hazardous. In hospital it comprises of 15% oftotal hospital waste. As quite a large percentage of waste, generated in Indian hospitals, belong to biomedical category (non-toxic and non-hazardous), hospital should have constant interaction with municipalauthorities so that this category of waste is regularly taken out of the hospital premises for land fill or othertreatment like incineration which involves The process of burning a material so that only ashes remain.
  6. 6. SYMBIOSIS INSTITUTE OF HEALTH SCIENCES (SIHS) Fundamentals of Hospital Planning ASSIGNMENT NO. 02 BMW MANAGEMENT & HANDLING RULES – 1998INCINERATOR : TYPES , SPECIFICATIONS & TIME CYCLE FOR EACH TYPE OF BMW Submitted To Submitted By Dr. Col. Vijay Deshpande Ketki Shinde PR No. 11040141043 MBA (HHC)-2011-13