Biomedical waste is defined as solidwaste generated during the diagnosis,testing, treatment, research orproduction of biological products forhumans or animals. Biomedical wasteincludes syringes, laboratory samples,body parts, bodily fluids and sharpneedles.
The main sources of biomedicalwaste are:HospitalsMedical clinicsLaboratories
Waste management can be done by asystematic approach, which involves:Segregation: Segregationis to be done at source ofgeneration of biomedicalwaste by the medical ¶-medical staff.Collection: Collection of biomedicalwaste should be done as per rules of
biomedical waste management &Handling (1998) notified under theenvironment protection act by theministry of environment.Transportation of hospitalwaste can be done: Within the hospital At the treatment / Disposal unit outside the hospital
Treatment of hospital waste: Approaches of treatment may differ according to: General waste Biomedical waste
TreatmentOption & Waste Category DisposalCat. No. Incineration Human Anatomical Waste1 /deep burial (human tissues, organs, body parts)Cat. No. Incineration Animal Waste (Animal2 /deep burial tissues, organs, Body parts bleeding parts, body fluids, blood and experimental animals used in research,
TreatmentOption & Waste Category Disposal discharge from hospitals, animal houses)Cat. No. Local Microbiology &3 autoclaving/ Biotechnology waste (wastes micro- from laboratory cultures, or waving/ specimens of micro- incineration organisms, live or attenuated vaccines, human and animal cell culture used in research
TreatmentOption & Waste Category Disposal and industrial laboratories, wastes from production of biological, toxins, dishes and devices used for transfer of cultures)Cat. No. Disinfection Waste Sharps (needles,4 (chemical syringes, blades, glass that treatment/ may cause puncture and autoclaving cuts. This includes both
TreatmentOption & Waste Category Disposal used & unused sharps)Cat. No. Incineration Discarded Medicines and5 or Cytotoxic drugs (wastes destruction comprising of outdated, & drugs contaminated and discarded disposal in medicines) secured landfills
TreatmentOption & Waste Category DisposalCat. No. Incineration Solid Waste (Items6 /autoclaving contaminated with blood and /micro- body fluids including cotton, waving dressings, soiled plaster casts, beddings)Cat. No. Disinfection Solid Waste (waste7 by chemical generated from disposable treatment items other than the sharps wastes such as tubing,
TreatmentOption & Waste Category Disposal intravenous sets etc.)Cat. No. Disinfection Liquid Waste (waste8 s by generated from laboratory & chemical washing, cleaning ,house- treatment keeping and disinfecting and activities) discharge into drain
TreatmentOption & Waste Category DisposalCat. No. Disposal in Incineration Ash (ash from9 municipal incineration of any bio- landfill medical waste)Cat. No. Chemically Chemical waste (chemicals10 Rx used in production of disinfection biologicals, chemical used in & discharge insecticides etc) into drains for liquid
NOTE: Chemicals treatment using at least 1% hypochlorite solution or any other equivalent chemical reagent should ensure the disinfection. Mutilation/shredding must be such so as to prevent unauthorized reuse. There will be no chemical pretreatment before incineration. PVC shall not be incinerated.
The central pollution board hasrecommended two types ofincinerators :Incinerators for individualhospital/nursing homes/medical establishmentsCommon incinerator tohandle waste.from a number of hospitals/nursinghomes /pathological laboratories etc.
Color Type of Waste Treatment Coding Container Category OptionsYellow Plastic bag Categories Incineration/ 1,2,3 & 6 deep burialRed Plastic bag Categories Autoclaving/ 3,6,7 Micro waving/ Chemical TreatmentBlue/white plastic bag/ Categories Autoclaving/Translucen puncture 4,7 Micro waving/-t proof chemical containers treatment
Color Type of Waste Treatment Coding Container Category OptionsBlue/ Plastic Categories Autoclaving/White bag/puncture 4,7 Microtranslucen proof waving/-t container chemical treatment and destructionBlack Plastic bag Categories Disposal in 5,9,10 secured (Solid) landfill
Different labels for bio-medical waste container& bags shall be require for identification & safeHandling of this waste. These labels for storage/Transportation of biomedical waste are as:
All items sent to incinerator/burial to be placed in yellow colored bags. All biomedical waste to be sent for microwave/ autoclaving/chemical treatment to be packed in a blue/white translucent bags.
Any other waste to be sent to shedder after autoclaving/chemical treatment to be packed in black bag. All bags /containers are to be filled up only 3/4th capacity & removed from the site of generation regularly &timely. Wastes that require decontamination/ disinfection at the site of generation (plastic or sharp materials should be removed only after treatment)
Indicators ChecklistIndicator 1 Sharp instruments are handled safely to minimize the risk of a sharp injury: Appropriate puncture-proof sharp containers. Container less than three-quarters full. No recapping or one-hand recapping.Indicator 2 Instruments decontaminated fully: Sterilizer available & in good
Indicators Checklist working order Equipment thoroughly cleaned after use. Clean instruments are stored in cupboards.Indicator 3 Hands are washed appropriately to prevent cross infection: Soap & water available. Clean towels available. Staff observed to wash and dry hands after
Indicators Checklist contact with body Fluid, removal of gloves & contact with patients.Indicator 4 A protective barrier is to worn to prevent exposure to blood The following protective barriers are available for use by staff (Depending on the clinical area & risk of exposure) Disposable gloves Heavy duty gloves Masks
Indicators Checklist Protective eyewearIndicator 5 Waste disposal safety: Evidence of deep burial or burning regularly. No contaminated waste visible