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Open Access in indonesia

Presentation of Dr. Juneman Abraham on Open Access in Indonesia in Global Minds 2019. As cited in, "This event focuses on the implementation of Open Access, with presentations about community-owned, non-commercial alternatives in use in the Global South and a debate on the ambitious plan of major funders, united in cOAlition S, to make all European research publications available in Open Access."

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Open Access in indonesia

  1. 1. OPEN ACCESS IN INDONESIA Dr. Juneman Abraham - Bina Nusantara University & Indonesian Open Science Team Presented @ KU Leuven, 2 December 2019
  2. 2. A bit history
  3. 3. platforms/goap/access-by-region/asia-and-the-pacific/indonesia/
  4. 4. Indonesia Policy until 2019 • Open Journal System (OJS) is endorsed as one of the right open source applications and in accordance with national journal accreditation requirements. • OJS has complete facilities to manage digital library materials in this case in the form of texts or articles, including facilities in implementing DOI (focus on dissemination, visibility, citation & Impact Factor improvement). • Cloud server and OJS application are set up by the Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI). The Ministry of Research and Technology provide consultation and training budget.
  5. 5. The H.E. Ministry’s “verbal” Policy Statement - 29 April 2019
  6. 6. Open Review is interpreted as “publishing a work without going through a process of good editing and review only submitting it to the public (as reviewers) without knowing the track record of publication reputation of them, to switch the scientific to popular (“unscientific”) types of publications." “Open Data depends on the wisdom of each researcher and institution policy because it involves a variety of applicable ethics.” The H.E. Ministry’s “verbal” Policy Statement - 29 April 2019
  7. 7. The inner things in facing the challenges •Open Access (OA) in Indonesia has been linked to •knowledge democratization •open mindset fighting for open systems
  8. 8. knowledge-for-our-dream/
  9. 9. The Story • Once upon a time, Indonesia was not connected/integrated with the international scientific world. • When it was not, open access became a normal culture; Indonesian academics loves if his/her writing in any media was quoted, cited. • Then comes the tenure regulation that presents policies that are “ambivalent” - oriented to “closed system”. For example, using of Scopus and Web of Science as a gold measure of research performance. • However, there are fundamental and structural issues that are not taken care of seriously, comprehensively: • research budget. • APC for open access burden. • resources (money, time) - complicated with lots of administrative things in the lecturer’s side. • Academic freedom, esp. for academics who are also civil servants ( kritik-pemerintah-1s3ned4qbLy) – compared with academics in Latin America • Everything depends on the government. The government depends on ‘supposed international norm’. • All these makes scientists not concerned with policies that do not support open access. There are not many critical scientists who want to change the situation systematically, institutionally and socially, even though there are some who have been doing it individually. • In terms of quantity, Indonesia dominates open access journals; but the quality is still questionable.
  10. 10. • In presentations for Indonesian OpenCon 2018 Jakarta & OpenCon 2019 Indonesia, I showed that Indonesian open access development can be linked to open mindset fighting for open systems.
  11. 11. Prove vs. Improve Mindset Behavioural aspect (E Norris, 2019) Fixed vs. Growth Mindset
  12. 12. Policies of some elements of the Indonesia Government that may contradict with the OA stream • Fighting for closed, instead of open system: • Scopus and Web of Science, the commercial databases, are made as the highest performance measurement of scientific publications in the Indonesian Science and Technology Index ( http://sintadev.ristekdikti.go .id ) • difficulties to accept pre- print papers as ‘non- publication’ (‘publicly available manuscripts’)
  13. 13. • H.E. govt rhetoric regarding internationalization: • "This study proposes specific models, indicators, and metrics, and provides the results of the implementation of these metrics on a portal database. The results will be useful for countries where many journals are not indexed in international citation databases, such as Scopus or the Web of Science. “ oi=10.6087/kcse.138 • The reality: • "Journals' performance was measured by taking data from Indonesian journals indexed in Scopus, the Indonesia national journal accreditation system, and citation frequency in Google Scholar. Based on these evaluation items, the S-score was proposed. “ oi=10.6087/kcse.138 • “Monodisciplinary” - SINTA is built by natural sciences team ➔ Problem: how to compare S-Score (?) – complex research performance, equitably.
  14. 14. Policies of some elements of the Indonesia Government that may contradict with the OA stream •Knowledge democratization: • Lack of coordination between Governmental bodies to promote Indonesian as an international scientific language • Dependence on Western similarity check software.
  15. 15. Discourses regarding Presidential Regulation No. 63 of 2019 concerning the Use of Indonesian Language in scientific world
  16. 16. Some OA issues in Indonesia Fear of idea theft Fear of data abuse APC of journal articles National policy importance Accountability Benefits for Indonesia development
  17. 17. The First Indonesian Paper on OpenScience (2017)
  18. 18. OA at Individual level • self-archiving / pre-print server • ( -> narxiv )
  19. 19. Cost problem faced by INARxiv The OSF (Open Science Framework) team has calculated the cost of USD 25,000 per year. INArxiv would stop operating: The name INArxiv will no longer be a server but a movement (Option 1) INArxiv is part of RIN (Repositori Ilmiah Nasional or National Scientific Repository). RIN for data, INArxiv for paper. Server merges with RIN (Option 2).
  20. 20. Option 3 (Brainstorming – What if?): Another Funding Model Establish sites like, for indonesia ... Funds can come from CSR funding of startup technology companies like Gojek, Grab, Bukalapak, etc. It could also be from “technology BUMN” (State-owned enterprises of Indonesia) like Telkomsel etc. The committee should be chosen from Indonesian scientists who are aware of the political economy of science and technology.
  21. 21. OA at Institutional level OA Indonesia-Discovery System ( ) Universities' theses repositories (eg EPrint, DSPace) aggregated in Open Journal Systems (aggregated in journal ; most of them are DIAMOND OA)
  22. 22. We (The Indonesian Open Science Team) educate each higher education institution to create their repositories as many as possible so that they can be used directly by the academic community Indonesia has 134 institutional repositories in Indonesia, according to OpenDOAR (2 December, 2019), spread over at least five main islands (Java, Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua). The number of repositories might not reflect the total number (in West Java alone there are more than 60 campus repositories). However, the number of repositories is still very small when compared to the number of universities in Indonesia (only includes: universities, institutes, and colleges) which are 3366 institutions.
  23. 23. OA at Country level Indonesian Scientific Repository ( Indonesia Open Data ( National Sci&Tech Information System (
  24. 24. Legal Foundation of Indonesia One Data: • Law Number 14 of 2008 concerning Openness of Public Information; • Law Number 25 of 2009 concerning Public Services; • Law Number 43 of 2009 concerning Archiving; • Information Commission Regulation Number 1 of 2010 concerning Public Information Service Standards; • Information Commission Regulation Number 2 of 2010 concerning Procedures for Settling Public Information Disputes. Not to disclose to public, information that: • Obstructs law enforcement processes; • Disturbs the interests of protecting intellectual property rights and protection from unfair business competition; • Endangers national defense and security; • Reveals Indonesia's natural wealth; • Damages national economic resilience; • Harms the interests of foreign relations; • Discloses the contents of authentic deeds that are personal and or someone's last will; • Reveals someone's personal secret; • are Memorandums or letters between Public Agencies or intra Public Agencies which by their nature are kept confidential, except upon the decision of the Information Commission or the court; • are Public information that must not be disclosed under the Act.
  25. 25. The things being asked at this time •Input -> Process -> Output (could be analyzed)
  26. 26. International level • DOAJ registration ( ). • There are 1,557 Indonesian journals indexed in DOAJ (2 Dec 2019) • Most of them are managed by not-for- profit institutions. • Nature reported that Indonesia is among Top OA Countries.
  27. 27. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 CMSimple Institut Teknologi Bandung Interna Publishing IPTEK Journals JOS MBI & UNS Solo moraref OJS OJS, Hostinger Open Journal System Open Journal System/OJS School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics (blank) Count of Platform, host or aggregator 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 ARK DOI DOI, Doc Yes (blank) Count of Permanent article identifiers Good familiarity with Open Source software in journal management Good familiarity with DOI as permanent identifier, so the metadata (Crossref standardized) can be easily analyzed.
  28. 28. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 False True Count of Author holds copyright without restrictions0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 CC BY CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-ND CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-SA Publisher's own license Yes Count of Journal license 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 False True Count of Author holds publishing rights without restrictions CC_License_Requirements.png
  29. 29. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 No No Information Yes Count of Journal article processing charges (APCs) 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 APC amount (in IDR) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 APC amount (in USD) 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1400000 1600000 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 Submission fee amount (N = 18, in IDR)
  30. 30. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Frequency Full text language Full text language
  31. 31. Recent Development • Indonesia has just had The 2019 Law of National System of Science and Technology ("SinasIptek Law") containing accessibility principle, ie: • “There is a mandatory activity for R&D institutions to store accessible primary data and research outputs - oriented to the creation and improvement of public services". • Indonesia also has Open Science communities (OpenAccess Indonesia, CreativeCommons Indonesia, SainsTerbuka Indonesia) advocating the FAIR principles.
  32. 32. Plan-S Participation? Plan-S is a policy published in September 2018 by an association of 24 research funders at various levels called Coalition- S. This policy consists of 10 principles. This policy requires publicly funded research to be freely accessed by the public. The mechanism is three: through an open access journal (gold OA journals), open access repository (green OA), and other open access platforms.
  33. 33. Inside perspective – Problem 1 • Indonesia and other Southern countries have a tendency to imitate any policies issued by Western nations. • If Indonesia imitates, more national funds will flow to foreign publishers, because Indonesian researchers are still under the pressure, namely the performance measurement policy which still relies entirely on conventional metrics.
  34. 34. Outside perspective – Problem 2 Plan S’ statement “publicly funded research should be available freely to the public” is not innocuous. One of the statement's implication is publication would still require a fee. We think that this is just an extension of European/Western knowledge colonialism/imperialism. What we see is European/Western governments (EU) trying to protect the interest of European corporations. We in indonesia do not want to get into the convoluted logic of maintaining current “publication capitalism”.
  35. 35. Outside perspective – Problem 3 • Although Plan S recommends three OA routes, many of the policy critics highlight the role of commercial publishers, especially with the pressure for academics to publish their research in prestigious media (i.e. Journals with high Impact Factor). • To reduce this potential, among the 10 Plan S policies, there is an advice that funders or other stakeholders (especially those in Coalition S) not to use mainstream metrics to measure the performance of researchers. However, it seems that the appeal has not been done much; and even if done, it might be rarely exposed.
  36. 36. Proposed solution – 1 • Indonesia needs to pay attention to open access infrastructure (not to its media publications) - as did AmeliCA and GLOALL (Global Alliance of Open Access Scholarly Communication Platforms), oriented to the national or regional autonomy. • The recommended structure: “But New Naratif is published by a company limited by guarantee. The company has no owner, cannot be bought or sold, and can never pay out profits to investors. We do this so that we will never be affected by the profit motive, nor can anyone enact a hostile takeover of the company, like what happened to the Chinese newspapers in Singapore or Utusan Melayu in Malaysia.” – or Community-owned and operated scientific ecosystem. • Academic journals should be not the only media for publishing research results.
  37. 37. Proposed Solution - 2 • Either the Plan S’ rhetoric must change, or the reality must change. • We think that given European/Western history of colonialism and imperialism, if European wish to feel really good about themselves, they should establish a fund to pay researchers from post-colonial countries to publish in their corporate publications, if they want us to still participate in the “charade of publication capitalism”.
  38. 38. Proposed Solution - 3 • Indonesian Science and Technology Index (SINTA) could become a new system if it implements open citation and based not only on competition. • However, even though citation access may be free for SINTA (Science and Technology Index), it goes into the heart whether govts, such as EU, deem publishing corporations such as Elsevier defensible, but it’s a “gateway drug” to research exploitation (status quo)
  39. 39. 1/Postcolonial%20Open%20Access%20-%20Piron.pdf
  40. 40. Another alternative: Open Science Monitor open_science_monitor_methodological_note_april_2019.pdf
  41. 41. Thing that we agree Talking about big regional OA platforms, currently each one is going in a different direction, preventing a strategic regional coalition to be possible. Such is the case of Scielo, which opted to look towards Clarivate Analytics in order to create a journal citation index inside Web of Science (out of the core collection), a strategy to achieve the inclusion of journals in the mainstream science. On the contrary, Redalyc seeks to strengthen publishers inside universities by empowering editors, with technology and training, and providing a set of metrics that show different aspects of the research performance rather than impact based on citations.
  42. 42. Values of Indonesian Open Science Call for Values!