Strategies for LIS research


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Strategies for LIS research

  1. 1. Dr R.S.R.Varalaskhmi ProfessorDLIS, Andhra University Visakhapatnam
  2. 2.  Focus areas of LIS research Literature search tools – print and Web Importance of research design Citations patterns
  3. 3.  Scientific research communicates the observations, experiences and experimental results, analyses and interpretations It may be communicated through ◦ Research project reports ◦ Research theses / dissertations ◦ Research articles
  4. 4.  Objective of LIS profession / departments – to raise the intellectual tone of the profession through quality research ◦ S.R.Ranganathan – Normative principles, dynamic theory of classification etc. ◦ B.S.Kesavan – pioneer institution builder, INB, Indian Science Abstracts ◦ A. Neelameghan – Knowledge organization ◦ G.Bhattacharya – POPSI ◦ Presnt - A.R.D.Prasad - Knowledge representation systems contributed at national level for LIS research that got international accolades. Steady deterioration in the quality of research Need to regain the glorious heights Need to nurture the research talent
  5. 5. Searching for research agenda – theoretical and applied Development of theoretical principles – contribution to the knowledge base of LIS ◦ Application of metadata for various indigenous materials ◦ Revision of Classification schemes suitable to web resources ◦ Management theories applicable to LIS –e.g. Six Sigma. ◦ New methods of knowledge delivery systems with ICTs ◦ Improving LIS vocabulary and conceptualization
  6. 6.  Application oriented aspects ◦ Designing of innovative models of information systems ◦ Scholarly communication – trends and impact ◦ Aggregation for data ware houses and digital libraries ◦ Classification and extraction methods for database retrieval ◦ Database ownership and copyright issues ◦ Collection development policies, procedures and standards – longitudinal studies ◦ Expert systems implementation for digital library environment ◦ Standards for LIS and measuring their applications ◦ Community information services in digital environment ◦ LIS programmes for differently gifted ◦ E-Learning management systems and libraries
  7. 7.  The purpose of literature search is locating information on a topic, synthesizing conclusions, identifying areas for future study, and developing guidelines for clinical practice. Manual – print → Computer databases → Online / Web searching Aim: Optimum search – include relevant and exclude irrelevant ◦ Comprehensive and exhaustive
  8. 8.  Manual - Print ◦ Abstracts -LISA ◦ Indexes - Library Literature ◦ Journals – content pages ◦ Theses / Dissertations (PhDs 1985 – 2005, Shodganga) ◦ Books ◦ Reference sources Web based ◦ Search engines and subject gateways, portals ◦ E- books ◦ E-journals ◦ ETDs ◦ E- learning material ◦ Digital libraries / repositories
  9. 9.  A multi-subject gateway. Intute is a free online service providing you with access to the very best Web resources for education and research. The service is created by a network of UK universities and partners. Subject specialists select and evaluate the websites in our database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. Intute: Social Sciences has been created by bringing together two of the Hubs of the Resource Discovery Network (RDN): Altis and SOSIG.
  10. 10.  A general gateway to all major academic subject resources for UK higher education, including other university library catalogues and electronic journals. Resources are carefully selected, accurately catalogued, and are correct at time of accession. DDC is followed to classify and organize resources
  11. 11.  Creation of Subject Gateways” realised in cooperation of the National Library of the Czech Republic and Charles University in Prague. set_language=en
  12. 12.  Social network created by M Badan Barman Academic Consultant School of Library & Information Science K.K.H. Handique State Open University Housefed Complex, Dispur, Guwahati /
  13. 13.  Developed by Dr M.Krishna Murthy of ISI, Bangalore brary/dg/index.htm
  14. 14.  Provides searchable and browsable catalogue of Internet based resources related to Library & Information Science. Developed under UGC- MRP /
  15. 15.  Librarians World is a network of Librarians & Information Scientists . It is a democratically managed site without any editor. http://www.librarians
  16. 16.  A group of professionals working in the area of library and computer fields. Objective behind this project is to give maximum information to working library and information science professionals, teachers and students at one place.
  17. 17.  Librarians Internet Index (LII) is a publicly-funded website and weekly newsletter serving California, the nation, and the world. It has over 20,000 entries, also maintained by librarians and organized into 14 main topics and nearly 300 related topics.
  18. 18.  THE INFORMED LIBRARIAN ONLINE is a monthly compilation of the most recent tables of contents from over 312 titles valuable domestic and foreign library and information-related journals, e-journals, magazines, e- magazines, newsletters and e-newsletters http://www.informedlibrarian.c om/index.cfm
  19. 19.  The Internet Public Library is a public service organization and a learning and teaching environment founded at the University of Michigan School of Information hosted by Drexel University’s College of Information Science and Technology
  20. 20.  In ancient times, the Library of Alexandria was seen as a universal store of human knowledge. The poet Callimachus solved the problem by compiling a catalogue called The Pinakes. On a far smaller scale, these Web pages hope to provide a similar function for Internet resources, by linking to the major subject gateways nakes/pinakes.html
  21. 21.  a comprehensive virtual library and reference tool for academic and scholarly Internet resources, including Web sites, databases a virtual library of Internet resources relevant to faculty, students, and research staff at the university level INFOMINE is librarian built. Librarians from the University of California, Wake Forest University, California State University, the University of Detroit - Mercy, and other universities and colleges have contributed to building INFOMINE.
  22. 22.  Electronic Books –eLibrary – Free e-books and best sites Book Spot, Contact: info(at) Bookstore, Books On-Line: Archives, BookWire (Bowker) Brave new e-books, The eBook Directory,,, Electronic Texts, Electronic Theses and Dissertations in the Humanities, Great Books Index, Great Books Online, Internet Book Information Center, or Net Library, The On-Line Books Page, Read Print, Utne Reader online, Library Technology guides:
  23. 23. ; html
  24. 24.  Different databases for each subject ◦ General: Embase, EBSCO; Specific: LISA understand how these are organized and indexed ◦ Structured collection of descriptive information ◦ Author ◦ Title ◦ Source ◦ Date ◦ Identify publications based on searchable fields
  25. 25.  Identifying authenticity Skimming Catching keywords and noting down Read for scope, relevance, critical analysis Synthesize as summary or extract if the content relevant Identify areas of controversy Identify questions that need future research Note down bibliographical details
  26. 26.  A literature review is part of a thesis or dissertation, Provides useful background of research outline Literature relevant to a particular field or topic. It gives an overview of what has been said –authors, theories, methodologies, and gaps. It is not in itself primary research, but reports on other findings. It may be purely descriptive or critical assessment of the literature Critical – contrast views; weaknesses or gaps; show relationship of ideas Descriptive- add comments, bring out themes & trends e.g. collection management
  27. 27.  A literature review is a piece of discursive prose, not a list describing or summarizing one piece of literature after another. Its usually a bad sign to see every paragraph beginning with the name of a researcher. Instead, organize the literature review into sections that present themes or identify trends, including relevant theory. Do not try to list all the material published, but to synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept of your thesis(Taylor, Dena. The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It,. Retrieved from writing/literature-review)
  28. 28.  Research design is the logical and systematic planning and directing a piece of research. The design results from translating a general scientific model into varied research procedures. The design has to be geared to the available time, energy and money; to the availability of data…” P.V.Young
  29. 29.  Research design constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. It aids the scientist in the allocation of his limited resources by posing crucial choices”  Bernard Phillips
  30. 30.  Components of research Methodology Data analysis and interpretation Chapterisation Time and financial budgeting
  31. 31.  Title of the study ◦ Should be as brief as possible ◦ Should be as precise as possible ◦ Should project the scope of the problem Justification of the study ◦ Analysis of the problem in contemporary situation ◦ Relevance and need for such a study ◦ What it contributes ◦ Indication of implementation of the study
  32. 32.  Review of literature ◦ Review of studies conducted earlier ◦ Critical appraisal of the studies ◦ Identification of missing links or identified gaps ◦ Need for the present study and how it adds to the existing literature Objectives of the study ◦ It may be as questions or explanations ◦ Objectives should be lucid and precise ◦ Defined without any ambiguity
  33. 33.  Formulation of hypothesis ◦ It is a tentative solution based on  Previous investigation / experience  The analogies  Findings of other studies  The body of theory / knowledge of the subject ◦ It should be conceptually clear ◦ Empirical ◦ Close to things observable ◦ Related to the body of theory
  34. 34.  Identification of variables ◦ Dependent variables – values are influenced by the values of other variables e.g. students visit to library (output) depends on the availability of books / internet; Usually denoted by ‘Y’ ◦ Independent variables – which influences dependent variables or which causes variation e.g. books/ internet (input); Usually denoted by ‘X’ ◦ Intervening or intercept variables – interruption of power, exam schedule, reading accommodation (process)
  35. 35.  Definition of concepts ◦ Terminology defined to achieve clarity ◦ Defined in general terms and in the context of the study i.e. Operational definitions Development of bibliography ◦ Following the citation manuals – APA, MLA etc. Nature of study ◦ Statistical ◦ Case study ◦ Comparative ◦ experimental
  36. 36.  Scope ◦ Subject scope ◦ Physical boundaries ◦ Tome period Sampling design ◦ Census or sampling  Probability Sampling – simple, stratified, systematic, multistage, cluster  Non-probability – accidental, quota, purposive
  37. 37.  Method of investigation ◦ Empirical – survey with primary data ◦ Analytical – case study with secondary data ◦ Combination - preferred Methods of collection of data (tools) ◦ Questionnaire ◦ Interview ◦ Observation etc.
  38. 38.  Data analysis ◦ Classification and tabulation ◦ Tabulation / graphical representation ◦ Statistical analysis ◦ Use of SPSS Interpretation of results ◦ Statistical testing based on test for significance  z- test  t – test  F - test
  39. 39.  Reporting the findings ◦ Writing and revision; editing ◦ Style of presentation – scientific style  Objectivity, clarity, diction, no sarcasm or cynicism ◦ Chapterization – structure of chapters ◦ Presentation of statistical data  Tables, graphs, charts ◦ Preliminary pages, appendix etc.
  40. 40.  Title – indicate purpose, content Author (s) – listed under first author Abstract 100-250 words Introduction – The significance of the paper (General to specific) Materials and methods Results Tables and graphs Discussion References
  41. 41.  Scientific writing must be accurate, clear Use active voice – its more concise Write succinctly – precise expression Use short, concise terms Use third person Check grammar, spelling and punctuation.
  42. 42.  Why cite? – acknowledging source is essential Which style? Any style but consistent Citation styles ◦ American Psychological Assocation APA ◦ Chicago Manual of style ◦ Modern Language Association - MLA