WWII Homefront


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WWII Homefront

  1. 1. U.S. Enters WWII and Homefront
  2. 2. U.S. Support of Britain      1940 – Hitler controlled much of Eastern Europe, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, and France. Britain was left alone to conquer Hitler. Once Hitler occupied France, isolationists in the U.S. decreased. Congress passed the “Lend-Lease Act” which allowed the U.S. to supply war goods to Britain. German submarines sunk 2 American ships the Kearney and the Reuben James. 100 Americans were killed.
  3. 3. Seeds of Pearl Harbor  On July 26 1941, in response to the Japanese Army's invasion of Indochina, Roosevelt froze all Japanese assets in America    Move that cut off all trade between the two nations and deprived Japan of crucial U.S. oil supplies. Without oil, the Japanese military machine threatened to grind to a halt. In response, then, Japan's leaders decided to wage a war against the United States.
  4. 4. Bombing of Pearl Harbor    Japan wanted to control Asia and decided to attack the U.S. naval bases in the Pacific so they would not interfere. December 7, 1941 – Japanese sank 8 battleships, damaged 10 others, destroyed 188 planes, and killed more than 2,300 Americans. December 8 – U.S. declares war on Japan.   In his address to Congress asking for a declaration of war against Japan, Roosevelt had declared that December 7, 1941 was "a date which will live in infamy." Germany (ally of Japan) declared war on the U.S. 2 days later.
  5. 5. Pearl Harbor Video and Speech
  6. 6. Two sides in World War II  Allies-U.S. (Truman), Great Britain (Churchill), Soviet Union (Stalin), France  Axis-Germany (Hitler), Italy (Mussolini), Japan (Tojo)
  7. 7. World War II - Homefront  Americans had to (mandatory) ration their food and other supplies in order to help with the war effort.  Ration: regulate the amount of something  Rationed essential goods such as food, coffee, tires, gas, and clothes  Planted Victory Gardens to ensure enough food for troops and civilians
  8. 8. World War II - Homefront  Ration coupons were issued based on the size of each family  Many  families happy to help with war effort The U.S. produced massive amounts of bombs, airplanes, ships, etc. and it brought the U.S. out of the Great Depression.
  9. 9. World War II - Homefront    Women took the place of men in factories and were allowed to work at non-traditional jobs outside of the home.  Rosie the Riveter celebrated the new roles given by women  Around 6.5 million women joined the workforce during the WWII African Americans and other minorities also filled the gap held jobs down when people left for war Women joined the Women’s Army Corps (WACS) and took clerical jobs  Not allowed to enlist (join) for regular armed forces
  10. 10. Office of War Information    OWI was created to control the content and imagery of war messages Created forms of propaganda to gain support of the war  Used movies, posters, radio and newsreels Created the Voice of America to send messages overseas to create distrust among Axis leaders and lower morale
  11. 11. Office of Information Advertisement
  12. 12. African-Americans in WWII    Many worked in war industries & govt. agencies More than 2.5 million registered for the draft  1 million actually served Battle on 2 fronts: enemy overseas and prejudice at home  Served in segregated units
  13. 13. Tuskegee Airmen   Black fighter group in Air Force in Tuskegee, Alabama  Started as escorts for pilots on bombing missions (overqualified for these positions)  So good that they were requested for many escort missions By 1944, pressure from black military leaders allowed them to fight in battle Successes were highly publicized  Earn over 150 Distinguished Crosses for achievements 
  14. 14. Luther Smith-Tuskegee Airman
  15. 15. Native Americans during WWII  More than 25,000 served in combat  40,000 left to work in defense industries  Many left the reservation for the first time
  16. 16. Navajo Code Talkers     Phillip Johnston proposed using the Navajo Language for codes  Grew up on Navajo reservation Among the most famous Native American servicemen were the Navajo Code Talkers  who worked as communications officers on ships in the Pacific speaking their native language—a "code" the enemy found impossible to crack. Used the Navajo language as “code” words for troops  Examples: "besh- lo" (iron fish) meant "submarine," "dah-he- tih-hi" (hummingbird) meant "fighter plane" and "debeh-li-zine" (black street) meant "squad.“ Navajo Code Video
  17. 17. WWII Homefront  Japanese Internment camps Forced all Japanese citizens and non citizens in the mainland U.S. to live in camps from 1942-1944.  The U.S. saw them as a threat to national security  The camps were in the western portion of the U.S. where there was less people.   Atomic Bomb Albert Einstein writes a letter to F. Roosevelt to encourage him to build the bomb.  Manhattan Project – secret plan to build the atomic bomb.  President Truman dropped the first bomb on Hiroshima on Aug. 6, 1945 (140,000 died) and Nagasaki on Aug. 9, 1945 (70,000 died). The Japanese finally surrendered on Aug. 11, 1945. 
  18. 18. Summary Video 1. List some of the items that were rationed, recycled or just went without.  2. How were these used in the war effort?  3. How did rationing and recycling bring the U.S. closer together?  4. Do you think Americans would ration today if we needed to? Why? 