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1 
S ECT ION 1 : THE AME R ICAN VAL UE S S Y S T EM 
S ECT ION 2 : SOCIAL CONT ROL 
S ECT ION 3 : SOCIAL CHANGE 
HOLT, RIN...
TRADITIONAL AMERICAN VALUES 
• Sociologist Robin Williams identified 15 values that 
are central to the American way of li...
BASIC VALUES 
OF AMERICAN CULTURE 
• Personal Achievement – built primarily by 
people that value individual 
achievement,...
4 
Picture A 
Picture C 
Picture B
BASIC VALUES 
OF AMERICAN CULTURE 
• Morality and Humanitarianism – 
Americans place a high value on 
morality and tend to...
PICTURE D 
6 
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
BASIC VALUES 
OF AMERICAN CULTURE 
(continued) 
• Progress and Material Comfort – 
Americans believe that through hard 
wo...
BASIC VALUES 
OF AMERICAN CULTURE 
• Freedom – freedom of choice such as 
religion, speech, and press and protect 
them fr...
OUR CHANGING VALUES 
• Self-fulfillment – the commitment to the full development of 
one’s personality, talents, and poten...
10 
Picture E 
Picture F 
Picture G 
Picture H
ENFORCING THE NORMS OF SOCIETY 
• Internalization – process by which a norm becomes a part of 
an individual’s personality...
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SANCTIONS 
• Positive Sanction – action that rewards 
a particular kind of behavior such as 
good grade...
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SANCTIONS 
• Formal Sanction – rewards or punishments by a 
formal organization or regulatory agency su...
MAIN SOURCES OF SOCIAL CHANGE 
• Informal Sanction– are affected by ideology 
spread through social movements 
• Technolog...
MAIN SOURCES OF SOCIAL CHANGE 
• Physical Environment – the environment may 
provide conditions that encourage or 
discour...
16 
Picture 1 
Picture 4 
Picture 2 Picture 3
17 
Picture 5 
Picture 6
CULTURAL LAG AND VESTED 
INTERESTS 
• Some cultural traits that change happen quickly 
while others do not 
HOLT, RINEHART...
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Chapter 3-American Values

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Overview of American Values

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Chapter 3-American Values

  1. 1. 1 S ECT ION 1 : THE AME R ICAN VAL UE S S Y S T EM S ECT ION 2 : SOCIAL CONT ROL S ECT ION 3 : SOCIAL CHANGE HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON CHAPTER 3 CULTURAL CONFORMITY AND ADAPTATION
  2. 2. TRADITIONAL AMERICAN VALUES • Sociologist Robin Williams identified 15 values that are central to the American way of life. • Many Americans values these 15 aspects of American life 2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  3. 3. BASIC VALUES OF AMERICAN CULTURE • Personal Achievement – built primarily by people that value individual achievement, as in the area of employment • Individualism – success comes through hard work and initiative • Work – Americans view discipline, dedication, and hard work as signs of virtue 3 Section 1: The American Values System HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  4. 4. 4 Picture A Picture C Picture B
  5. 5. BASIC VALUES OF AMERICAN CULTURE • Morality and Humanitarianism – Americans place a high value on morality and tend to view the world in terms of right and wrong; quick to help the unfortunate • Efficiency and Practicality – practical and inventive, every problem has a solution; judge objects on their usefulness and people on their ability to get things done (continued) 5 Section 1: The American Values System HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  6. 6. PICTURE D 6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  7. 7. BASIC VALUES OF AMERICAN CULTURE (continued) • Progress and Material Comfort – Americans believe that through hard work and determination living standards will continue to improve • Equality and Democracy – to have human equality, there must be an equality of opportunity; success is a reward that must be earned 7 Section 1: The American Values System HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  8. 8. BASIC VALUES OF AMERICAN CULTURE • Freedom – freedom of choice such as religion, speech, and press and protect them from government interference (continued) 8 Section 1: The American Values System HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  9. 9. OUR CHANGING VALUES • Self-fulfillment – the commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential; includes leisure, physical fitness and youthfulness • Person’s mindset determines their self-fulfillment • Narcissism: extreme self-centeredness • Sociologist Christopher Lasch the emphasis on personal fulfillment HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON (narcissism) a personality disorder • Environmental protection • Education and Religion were deemed important by students who were polled • Sociologist James Henslin found these to be important • He also suggested love to be important as well 9 Section 1: The American Values System
  10. 10. 10 Picture E Picture F Picture G Picture H
  11. 11. ENFORCING THE NORMS OF SOCIETY • Internalization – process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectations • Ex: holding the door open when a woman walks through, fixing a plate for HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON a guest, or social media • Sanctions – rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms 11 Section 2: Social Control
  12. 12. DIFFERENT TYPES OF SANCTIONS • Positive Sanction – action that rewards a particular kind of behavior such as good grades or a pay raise • Negative Sanction – punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity such as frowns, imprisonment, and even death 12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Section 2: Social Control
  13. 13. DIFFERENT TYPES OF SANCTIONS • Formal Sanction – rewards or punishments by a formal organization or regulatory agency such as the government and includes promotions, awards, or low grades • Informal Sanction – spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval by an individual or group such as a standing ovation, gifts, gossip, or ridicule • Blog and the social media are the most popular types HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON today 13 Section 2: Social Control (continued)
  14. 14. MAIN SOURCES OF SOCIAL CHANGE • Informal Sanction– are affected by ideology spread through social movements • Technology – knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environment • Population – change in size of population may bring about changes in the culture • Diffusion – the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another 14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Section 3: Social Change
  15. 15. MAIN SOURCES OF SOCIAL CHANGE • Physical Environment – the environment may provide conditions that encourage or discourage cultural change • Wars and Conquest – are not common but bring about the greatest amount of change in the least amount of time 15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Section 3: Social Change (continued)
  16. 16. 16 Picture 1 Picture 4 Picture 2 Picture 3
  17. 17. 17 Picture 5 Picture 6
  18. 18. CULTURAL LAG AND VESTED INTERESTS • Some cultural traits that change happen quickly while others do not HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON • Cultural lag • Sometimes people want things to stay the way they are within a society • Called a vested interest 18

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