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AS Media Studies G322 Key Media Concepts Revision<br />The AS Media Studies exam is 2 hours long.  There are 2 sections to the exam, Section A: TV Drama, and Section B: Institutions and Audiences.  You must answer both questions.  In the exam you will be shown a 5 minute extract from a TV Drama 4 times.  You will then have 45 minutes to answer a question on representation in the extract.  You will then have 45 minutes to complete a second question on the film industry.  You will not be told when to move onto the next question – you must make sure you leave yourself enough time for the second question.<br />Section A: TV Drama<br />You will be asked to answer question on how one social group is represented in the extract through camerawork, editing, sound, and mise-en-scene.  The question will specify which social group to focus on from one of the following:<br />Gender<br />Age<br />Sexuality<br />Ethnicity<br />Social class and status<br />Regional identity<br />Disability/ability<br />In order to do well you should:Use a wide range of specific and relevant examples from the extractExplain how the examples construct representations of the specified social groupUse a range of examples from all four technical areasUse terminology consistently and accurately<br />The four technical areas:<br />Camerawork<br />Camerawork can be used to represent characters in a variety of ways:<br />High/low angles/tilts to show dominance/inferiority<br />Point of view/over the shoulder to encourage the audience to identify with the character<br />Camera movement to suggest the character is fast paced and energetic, or chaotic, anxious, etc.<br />Two shots to emphasise the relationship between characters<br />Zooms for emphasis<br />Close-ups to show emotions/reactions<br />Long/establishing shots to show setting/costume<br />Establishing shotShot showing the location the scene is taking place.Master shotShot showing where characters/objects are positioned in a sceneClose-upShowing someone from the shoulders up.Mid-shotShowing someone from the waist up.Long shotShowing someone from head to toe.Wide shotShowing a wide view of the scene.Two-shotA shot showing two people.Aerial shotShot filmed from the air.Point of view shotA shot showing the perspective of  a character.Over the shoulder shotWhat it says.High angleThe camera looks down on someone.Low angleThe camera looks up at someone.Canted angleThe camera is at a slanted angle.PanThe camera moves from side to side.TiltThe camera moves up and down.TrackThe camera follows a person or object.CraneThe camera moves up or down on a crane.SteadicamThe camera is strapped to camera operator’s body, creates a gliding effect.Hand-held A shaky handheld effect.ZoomThe camera zooms in or out.Reverse-zoomThe lenses zooms in or out whilst the camera moves in the opposite direction, creates the impression that the background is constantly moving.<br />Editing can be used to construct representations by:<br />The pace of editing (fast paced – young, energetic, slow –old)<br />Contrasting characters or settings (crosscutting, shot/reverse shot)<br />Creating links between characters or settings<br />Showing us what a character is looking at<br />Showing us what a character is thinking about (cutting, superimposition)<br />CuttingThe process where one shot is replaced on screen immediately by the next.Shot/reverse shotCutting back and forth between people in a conversation.Eyeline matchCutting to show what a character is looking at.Graphic matchA similar shape or colour linking two consecutive shots.Action matchCutting to show another angle of the scene.Jump cutCutting out the middle section of a shot.CrosscuttingCutting back and forth between two or more scenes happening simultaneously.DissolveOne shot fades out as the next shot fades in.Fade out/fade inThe image fades out to a blank screen, or fades in from a blank screen.SuperimpositionOne image is placed on top of another image.Slow motionWhat it says.Long takeA single continuous shot that does not cut for an unusual length of time (e.g. over a minute).Fast paced/slow paced editing When the editing is fast paced the action will cut rapidly from shot to shot with each shot lasting only a few seconds.  Slow paced editing will involve limited cutting from shot to shot.<br />Sound can represent social groups in a range of ways:<br />The language and accent of a character<br />Use of music can tell you about the character<br />Ambient sounds can tell you about the setting<br />Diegetic Sound originating from a source in the scene, e.g. dialogue.Non-diegeticSound added in postproduction, e.g. background music.Sound motifA sound or piece of music associated with a character, place, or theme (like the JAWS).Sound bridgeSound linking the end of one scene and the beginning of the next.DialogueWords spoken by actors.VoiceoverDialogue spoken by an unseen character over related images.Direct addressWhen the actor speaks directly to the camera.Sound mixThe way in which the different sounds in a scene are mixed together.Ambient soundBackground noise<br />Mise-en-scene is very important to representation:<br />What a character wears<br />Where the scene is taking place and how it appears<br />Props can signify information about characters<br />Lighting connotes certain meanings about characters<br />LocationWhere the scene takes placeSet designHow the setting is designedCostumeClothes worn by the actorsMake upPropsObjects used in the sceneHigh key lightingBright lightingLow key lightingDark lighting<br />Try analysing sequences from TV dramas in relation to how they represent one of the social groups through their use of camerawork, editing, sound, and mise-en-scene.  BBC iPlayer and 4OD are useful resources.  The link below has a range of different extracts from TV dramas with sample exam questions:<br />http://www.youtube.com/user/mfgrogan#g/c/2A88817BB24AEF18<br />Section B: Institutions and Audiences<br />You need to be able to discuss issues of production, marketing, distribution, and consumption in the film industry in relation to the following topics:<br />Media ownership<br />Cross-media convergence and synergy<br />Technology<br />Proliferation of hardware and content<br />Technological convergence<br />Marketing<br />Consumption<br />Media ownership, Cross-media Convergence and Synergy<br />Concentration of media ownership – over the last 50 years the number of companies owing media outlets has shrunk, and the media industry is now dominated by 6 conglomerates.<br />Oligopoly – a market that is dominated by a small number of companies.<br />Cross-media ownership (or cross-media convergence) – a company that owns different types of media (film, TV, radio, etc.)<br />Conglomerate- a large parent company that owns a range of smaller subsidiary companies.<br />Subsidiary – a smaller company owned by a conglomerate.<br />Synergy – when 2 or more elements of a conglomerate work together to promote a brand.<br />Ancillary revenue – revenue made from merchandise, DVD sales.<br />Disney are the largest media conglomerate.  Their total revenue in 2010 was $38 billion.  Disney are made up of four subsidiary divisions – The Walt Disney Studios (film studios, record labels); Parks and Resorts (theme parks); Disney Consumer Products (merchandise, publishing), Media Networks (TV, radio, internet).  Disney are an example of cross-media ownership.  They own a wide range of different types of media (film, TV, music, internet, publishing, radio, etc.).  The benefits of this for Disney is that allows them to use synergy.  Disney have developed a range of cross-platform brands such as ‘High School Musical’, ‘Hannah Montana’, and The Jonas Brothers.  These brands allow a wide range of products to be produced which make the most of Disney’s broad range of subsidiaries including television programmes for the Disney Channel, films for theatrical releases, soundtracks which are released through their record label, merchandise, books, and magazines produced by the consumer products division, video games and online games developed by the Media networks division.  Each of these products works to promote the other products (constant media synergy), the TV programme promotes the film which promotes the soundtrack which promotes the merchandise, etc.Disney used synergy to promote the release of ‘Tron: Legacy’ (2010).  The soundtrack by Daft Punk was released through Disney’s record label.  The album generated publicity which encouraged people to see the film, and buy the album.  ElecTRONica dance parties were held at the Disneyland resort before the film was released, which included previews of the film.  This would encourage people visiting the resort to go to see the film, and may encourage fans of the film to visit the resort.Synergy was also used in the promotion of ‘Toy Story 3’ (2010).  The first 2 Toy Story films were re-released in digital 3D.  These screenings included previews of ‘Toy Story 3’.  This would make people aware of the release of ‘Toy Story 3’, and encourage them to watch the first 2 films.  The Blu Ray/DVD release of ‘Toy Story’ and ‘Toy Story 2’ included a ‘Toy Story 3’ featurette.  The Disney owned ABC channel included a dance number from the film during an episode of their programmes ‘Dancing with the Stars’.  Sneak peeks of the film were shown on the Disney Channel.  The Disney Channel had a special Toy Story day prior to the films releases, when they showed the first 2 films and previews of the new film.  This would make people aware of the release of the new film, and encourage them to watch the Disney Channel.  Both elements of the brand are working to promote each other.  <br />Technology, Proliferation, and Convergence<br />Proliferation of hardware and content – the idea that media technologies are now commonplace, most people own a range of devices that allow them to access media products.  Because of this there is now a wider range of media content available.<br />Technological convergence – 2 or more types of media coming together in one device.<br />New technologies are used by Disney in the production of their films.  Tron: Legacy was filmed in digital 3D.  This reflects the popularity of 3D technology with film studios.  Studios like 3D for a number of reasons.  Several recent 3D releases have been hugely successful, such as ‘Avatar’ which made $2.7 billion.  Cinemas can also charge more for tickets to see 3D films.  3D also helps to tackle piracy and encourages people to pay to see the film at the cinema, as pirated copies will not be in 3D.  Filming in 3D is more costly than 2D.  Tron: Legacy used the Pace Fusion rig, a 2 camera rig which films the images simultaneously.  The size of the camera rig makes it difficult to move around, meaning camera movement is limited.  As a result of that much of the camerawork in Tron: Legacy is static.Tron: Legacy also used CGI (Computer Generated Imagery) to produce a range of special effects.  Most of the shots are in Tron are 90% CGI.  Many of the backgrounds are completely computer generated.  One of the characters in Tron was also completely computer generated.New technologies have benefits and disadvantages for companies like Disney.  Proliferation of hardware and widespread has lead to increased piracy, as well as offering a wider range of entertainment choices competing for the audience’s attention.  A consequence of this has been declining DVD sales.  Disney’s sales of DVDs fell by 15% last year.  This is significant as on average 46% of a studio’s revenue from a film’s release comes from DVD sales.  In order to combat this Disney have developed their use of digital distribution and electronic sell-through.  Disney recently launched Studio All Access which allows consumers to purchase a copy of film and then access it in a variety of formats on a range of devices.  The DVD release of ‘Toy Story 3’ came as a special multi-pack featuring DVD, Blu-ray, streaming, and digital download copies.  Disney are also planning to launch a Video on Demand service to allow consumers to instantly access their films through cable and digital television.    Disney have also developed a product called Second Screen which allows users who have bought Blu-ray editions of certain films such as Tron: Legacy to download an app for an iPad, iPod, or computer. Whilst they are watching the film consumers can sync this app with the film allowing them to access a range of additional content (trivia, games, storyboards, etc.).  This is an example of technological convergence allowing the experience of the consumer to be more interactive.  It also benefits Disney by encouraging consumers to purchase their products.<br />Marketing<br />Disney use a range of techniques to promote their products including synergy.  When using traditional forms of marketing Disney use their release of similar products to help target their audience.  The first trailer for ‘Toy Story 3’ was shown at screenings of ‘Up’.  This helps Disney to reach their target audience.New technology has also changed the way in which companies market their products.  Viral marketing has been used very successfully by a range of films to generate publicity, including ‘The Blair Witch Project’, ‘The Dark Knight’, and ‘Cloverfield’.  Viral marketing is cheap, and is spread from one consumer to the other.  It also makes consumers feel more involved in a film, and can generate word of mouth.  Viral marketing was used to promote the release of Tron: Legacy.  A website about the main character flynnlives.com was launched, and contained information about the film as well as organising events to encourage fans to get involved.  Viral marketing was also used by ‘Toy Story 3’, various viral videos were posted to Youtube, including a fake 1980s toy advert about one of the characters in the film.  These videos were seen by millions of people, generating interest in the film.  Social networking sites such as Facebook are also used by film studios to promote their films.  Before the release of ‘Alice in Wonderland’ Disney created Facebook pages for three of the main characters and encouraged fans to choose which character was their favourite.  The most popular character’s page received a premiere of the first trailer for the film.  This encourages people to feel involved, and to forward on marketing information to their friends.  Before the release of ‘Toy Story 3’ Disney organised special Cliffhanger screenings of the first hour of the film at college campuses.  In order to receive a ticket people had to sign up to the Disney/Pixar Facebook page.  This meant Disney could then send people regular updates about the film’s release.  This type of marketing is usually better targeted (as people have signed up for it) and much cheaper than traditional marketing.<br />Distribution and Consumption<br />Electronic sell-through – selling a film in a digital format.<br />Video on Demand – allowing the user to watch a video instantly, e.g. Film4OD.<br />Near Video on Demand – allowing users to access content on demand at certain times, e.g. Sky Box Office.<br />Developments in technology and proliferation of hardware and content have implications for the ways in which films are distributed.  Proliferation means there is now a much wider variety of ways in which films can be consumed, e.g. cinema, DVD, Blu-ray, Video on Demand, Near Video on Demand, digital download, digital television.  This is one factor in declining DVD sales.  To try to boost DVD sales of ‘Alice in Wonderland’ Disney shortened the distribution window between the theatrical release and the DVD release from 17 weeks to 12 weeks.  They hoped that the marketing campaign for the theatrical release would still be fresh in people’s minds.  They also hoped it would reduce the number of people who watched illegal copies.  In an attempt to tackle piracy and boost revenue some companies use a day and date release where the film is released at the cinema, on DVD, on VOD and NVOD simultaneously.  Most people expect new technologies to lead to shorter distribution windows.Digital theatrical distribution allows film companies to distribute films electronically as digital files.  This saves money and resources.  It has boosted Disney’s market in China and Russia, as digital distribution has allowed for a big expansion in the number of cinema screens in those countries.Despite the emergence of new technologies such as digital downloads most people still do not use internet platforms to purchase films.  In 2009 the biggest source of revenue in the UK was the sale of DVD/Blu-ray (£1.3 billion), followed by cinema (£944 million), Pay-TV, free to air TV, video rental, and VOD/NVOD (£124 million).<br />To do well:<br />Develop a clear argument about the benefits and disadvantages to film institutions and audiences of recent developments effecting the film industry<br />Include detailed reference to case study material<br />Make sure you use relevant and accurate factual information<br />Use terminology consistently and accurately <br />Refer to your own experience as a consumer<br />Section B Exam QuestionsDiscuss the issues raised by an institution’s need to target specific audiences within a media industry which you have studied. Discuss the issues raised by an institution’s need to target specific audiences within a media industry which you have studied. How important is technological convergence for institutions and audiences within a media area which you have studied?How important is technological convergence for institutions and audiences within a media area which you have studied?How important is technological convergence for institutions and audiences within a media area which you have studied?<br />
AS Media Studies G322 exam revision guide
AS Media Studies G322 exam revision guide
AS Media Studies G322 exam revision guide
AS Media Studies G322 exam revision guide
AS Media Studies G322 exam revision guide

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AS Media Studies G322 exam revision guide

  • 1. AS Media Studies G322 Key Media Concepts Revision<br />The AS Media Studies exam is 2 hours long. There are 2 sections to the exam, Section A: TV Drama, and Section B: Institutions and Audiences. You must answer both questions. In the exam you will be shown a 5 minute extract from a TV Drama 4 times. You will then have 45 minutes to answer a question on representation in the extract. You will then have 45 minutes to complete a second question on the film industry. You will not be told when to move onto the next question – you must make sure you leave yourself enough time for the second question.<br />Section A: TV Drama<br />You will be asked to answer question on how one social group is represented in the extract through camerawork, editing, sound, and mise-en-scene. The question will specify which social group to focus on from one of the following:<br />Gender<br />Age<br />Sexuality<br />Ethnicity<br />Social class and status<br />Regional identity<br />Disability/ability<br />In order to do well you should:Use a wide range of specific and relevant examples from the extractExplain how the examples construct representations of the specified social groupUse a range of examples from all four technical areasUse terminology consistently and accurately<br />The four technical areas:<br />Camerawork<br />Camerawork can be used to represent characters in a variety of ways:<br />High/low angles/tilts to show dominance/inferiority<br />Point of view/over the shoulder to encourage the audience to identify with the character<br />Camera movement to suggest the character is fast paced and energetic, or chaotic, anxious, etc.<br />Two shots to emphasise the relationship between characters<br />Zooms for emphasis<br />Close-ups to show emotions/reactions<br />Long/establishing shots to show setting/costume<br />Establishing shotShot showing the location the scene is taking place.Master shotShot showing where characters/objects are positioned in a sceneClose-upShowing someone from the shoulders up.Mid-shotShowing someone from the waist up.Long shotShowing someone from head to toe.Wide shotShowing a wide view of the scene.Two-shotA shot showing two people.Aerial shotShot filmed from the air.Point of view shotA shot showing the perspective of a character.Over the shoulder shotWhat it says.High angleThe camera looks down on someone.Low angleThe camera looks up at someone.Canted angleThe camera is at a slanted angle.PanThe camera moves from side to side.TiltThe camera moves up and down.TrackThe camera follows a person or object.CraneThe camera moves up or down on a crane.SteadicamThe camera is strapped to camera operator’s body, creates a gliding effect.Hand-held A shaky handheld effect.ZoomThe camera zooms in or out.Reverse-zoomThe lenses zooms in or out whilst the camera moves in the opposite direction, creates the impression that the background is constantly moving.<br />Editing can be used to construct representations by:<br />The pace of editing (fast paced – young, energetic, slow –old)<br />Contrasting characters or settings (crosscutting, shot/reverse shot)<br />Creating links between characters or settings<br />Showing us what a character is looking at<br />Showing us what a character is thinking about (cutting, superimposition)<br />CuttingThe process where one shot is replaced on screen immediately by the next.Shot/reverse shotCutting back and forth between people in a conversation.Eyeline matchCutting to show what a character is looking at.Graphic matchA similar shape or colour linking two consecutive shots.Action matchCutting to show another angle of the scene.Jump cutCutting out the middle section of a shot.CrosscuttingCutting back and forth between two or more scenes happening simultaneously.DissolveOne shot fades out as the next shot fades in.Fade out/fade inThe image fades out to a blank screen, or fades in from a blank screen.SuperimpositionOne image is placed on top of another image.Slow motionWhat it says.Long takeA single continuous shot that does not cut for an unusual length of time (e.g. over a minute).Fast paced/slow paced editing When the editing is fast paced the action will cut rapidly from shot to shot with each shot lasting only a few seconds. Slow paced editing will involve limited cutting from shot to shot.<br />Sound can represent social groups in a range of ways:<br />The language and accent of a character<br />Use of music can tell you about the character<br />Ambient sounds can tell you about the setting<br />Diegetic Sound originating from a source in the scene, e.g. dialogue.Non-diegeticSound added in postproduction, e.g. background music.Sound motifA sound or piece of music associated with a character, place, or theme (like the JAWS).Sound bridgeSound linking the end of one scene and the beginning of the next.DialogueWords spoken by actors.VoiceoverDialogue spoken by an unseen character over related images.Direct addressWhen the actor speaks directly to the camera.Sound mixThe way in which the different sounds in a scene are mixed together.Ambient soundBackground noise<br />Mise-en-scene is very important to representation:<br />What a character wears<br />Where the scene is taking place and how it appears<br />Props can signify information about characters<br />Lighting connotes certain meanings about characters<br />LocationWhere the scene takes placeSet designHow the setting is designedCostumeClothes worn by the actorsMake upPropsObjects used in the sceneHigh key lightingBright lightingLow key lightingDark lighting<br />Try analysing sequences from TV dramas in relation to how they represent one of the social groups through their use of camerawork, editing, sound, and mise-en-scene. BBC iPlayer and 4OD are useful resources. The link below has a range of different extracts from TV dramas with sample exam questions:<br />http://www.youtube.com/user/mfgrogan#g/c/2A88817BB24AEF18<br />Section B: Institutions and Audiences<br />You need to be able to discuss issues of production, marketing, distribution, and consumption in the film industry in relation to the following topics:<br />Media ownership<br />Cross-media convergence and synergy<br />Technology<br />Proliferation of hardware and content<br />Technological convergence<br />Marketing<br />Consumption<br />Media ownership, Cross-media Convergence and Synergy<br />Concentration of media ownership – over the last 50 years the number of companies owing media outlets has shrunk, and the media industry is now dominated by 6 conglomerates.<br />Oligopoly – a market that is dominated by a small number of companies.<br />Cross-media ownership (or cross-media convergence) – a company that owns different types of media (film, TV, radio, etc.)<br />Conglomerate- a large parent company that owns a range of smaller subsidiary companies.<br />Subsidiary – a smaller company owned by a conglomerate.<br />Synergy – when 2 or more elements of a conglomerate work together to promote a brand.<br />Ancillary revenue – revenue made from merchandise, DVD sales.<br />Disney are the largest media conglomerate. Their total revenue in 2010 was $38 billion. Disney are made up of four subsidiary divisions – The Walt Disney Studios (film studios, record labels); Parks and Resorts (theme parks); Disney Consumer Products (merchandise, publishing), Media Networks (TV, radio, internet). Disney are an example of cross-media ownership. They own a wide range of different types of media (film, TV, music, internet, publishing, radio, etc.). The benefits of this for Disney is that allows them to use synergy. Disney have developed a range of cross-platform brands such as ‘High School Musical’, ‘Hannah Montana’, and The Jonas Brothers. These brands allow a wide range of products to be produced which make the most of Disney’s broad range of subsidiaries including television programmes for the Disney Channel, films for theatrical releases, soundtracks which are released through their record label, merchandise, books, and magazines produced by the consumer products division, video games and online games developed by the Media networks division. Each of these products works to promote the other products (constant media synergy), the TV programme promotes the film which promotes the soundtrack which promotes the merchandise, etc.Disney used synergy to promote the release of ‘Tron: Legacy’ (2010). The soundtrack by Daft Punk was released through Disney’s record label. The album generated publicity which encouraged people to see the film, and buy the album. ElecTRONica dance parties were held at the Disneyland resort before the film was released, which included previews of the film. This would encourage people visiting the resort to go to see the film, and may encourage fans of the film to visit the resort.Synergy was also used in the promotion of ‘Toy Story 3’ (2010). The first 2 Toy Story films were re-released in digital 3D. These screenings included previews of ‘Toy Story 3’. This would make people aware of the release of ‘Toy Story 3’, and encourage them to watch the first 2 films. The Blu Ray/DVD release of ‘Toy Story’ and ‘Toy Story 2’ included a ‘Toy Story 3’ featurette. The Disney owned ABC channel included a dance number from the film during an episode of their programmes ‘Dancing with the Stars’. Sneak peeks of the film were shown on the Disney Channel. The Disney Channel had a special Toy Story day prior to the films releases, when they showed the first 2 films and previews of the new film. This would make people aware of the release of the new film, and encourage them to watch the Disney Channel. Both elements of the brand are working to promote each other. <br />Technology, Proliferation, and Convergence<br />Proliferation of hardware and content – the idea that media technologies are now commonplace, most people own a range of devices that allow them to access media products. Because of this there is now a wider range of media content available.<br />Technological convergence – 2 or more types of media coming together in one device.<br />New technologies are used by Disney in the production of their films. Tron: Legacy was filmed in digital 3D. This reflects the popularity of 3D technology with film studios. Studios like 3D for a number of reasons. Several recent 3D releases have been hugely successful, such as ‘Avatar’ which made $2.7 billion. Cinemas can also charge more for tickets to see 3D films. 3D also helps to tackle piracy and encourages people to pay to see the film at the cinema, as pirated copies will not be in 3D. Filming in 3D is more costly than 2D. Tron: Legacy used the Pace Fusion rig, a 2 camera rig which films the images simultaneously. The size of the camera rig makes it difficult to move around, meaning camera movement is limited. As a result of that much of the camerawork in Tron: Legacy is static.Tron: Legacy also used CGI (Computer Generated Imagery) to produce a range of special effects. Most of the shots are in Tron are 90% CGI. Many of the backgrounds are completely computer generated. One of the characters in Tron was also completely computer generated.New technologies have benefits and disadvantages for companies like Disney. Proliferation of hardware and widespread has lead to increased piracy, as well as offering a wider range of entertainment choices competing for the audience’s attention. A consequence of this has been declining DVD sales. Disney’s sales of DVDs fell by 15% last year. This is significant as on average 46% of a studio’s revenue from a film’s release comes from DVD sales. In order to combat this Disney have developed their use of digital distribution and electronic sell-through. Disney recently launched Studio All Access which allows consumers to purchase a copy of film and then access it in a variety of formats on a range of devices. The DVD release of ‘Toy Story 3’ came as a special multi-pack featuring DVD, Blu-ray, streaming, and digital download copies. Disney are also planning to launch a Video on Demand service to allow consumers to instantly access their films through cable and digital television. Disney have also developed a product called Second Screen which allows users who have bought Blu-ray editions of certain films such as Tron: Legacy to download an app for an iPad, iPod, or computer. Whilst they are watching the film consumers can sync this app with the film allowing them to access a range of additional content (trivia, games, storyboards, etc.). This is an example of technological convergence allowing the experience of the consumer to be more interactive. It also benefits Disney by encouraging consumers to purchase their products.<br />Marketing<br />Disney use a range of techniques to promote their products including synergy. When using traditional forms of marketing Disney use their release of similar products to help target their audience. The first trailer for ‘Toy Story 3’ was shown at screenings of ‘Up’. This helps Disney to reach their target audience.New technology has also changed the way in which companies market their products. Viral marketing has been used very successfully by a range of films to generate publicity, including ‘The Blair Witch Project’, ‘The Dark Knight’, and ‘Cloverfield’. Viral marketing is cheap, and is spread from one consumer to the other. It also makes consumers feel more involved in a film, and can generate word of mouth. Viral marketing was used to promote the release of Tron: Legacy. A website about the main character flynnlives.com was launched, and contained information about the film as well as organising events to encourage fans to get involved. Viral marketing was also used by ‘Toy Story 3’, various viral videos were posted to Youtube, including a fake 1980s toy advert about one of the characters in the film. These videos were seen by millions of people, generating interest in the film. Social networking sites such as Facebook are also used by film studios to promote their films. Before the release of ‘Alice in Wonderland’ Disney created Facebook pages for three of the main characters and encouraged fans to choose which character was their favourite. The most popular character’s page received a premiere of the first trailer for the film. This encourages people to feel involved, and to forward on marketing information to their friends. Before the release of ‘Toy Story 3’ Disney organised special Cliffhanger screenings of the first hour of the film at college campuses. In order to receive a ticket people had to sign up to the Disney/Pixar Facebook page. This meant Disney could then send people regular updates about the film’s release. This type of marketing is usually better targeted (as people have signed up for it) and much cheaper than traditional marketing.<br />Distribution and Consumption<br />Electronic sell-through – selling a film in a digital format.<br />Video on Demand – allowing the user to watch a video instantly, e.g. Film4OD.<br />Near Video on Demand – allowing users to access content on demand at certain times, e.g. Sky Box Office.<br />Developments in technology and proliferation of hardware and content have implications for the ways in which films are distributed. Proliferation means there is now a much wider variety of ways in which films can be consumed, e.g. cinema, DVD, Blu-ray, Video on Demand, Near Video on Demand, digital download, digital television. This is one factor in declining DVD sales. To try to boost DVD sales of ‘Alice in Wonderland’ Disney shortened the distribution window between the theatrical release and the DVD release from 17 weeks to 12 weeks. They hoped that the marketing campaign for the theatrical release would still be fresh in people’s minds. They also hoped it would reduce the number of people who watched illegal copies. In an attempt to tackle piracy and boost revenue some companies use a day and date release where the film is released at the cinema, on DVD, on VOD and NVOD simultaneously. Most people expect new technologies to lead to shorter distribution windows.Digital theatrical distribution allows film companies to distribute films electronically as digital files. This saves money and resources. It has boosted Disney’s market in China and Russia, as digital distribution has allowed for a big expansion in the number of cinema screens in those countries.Despite the emergence of new technologies such as digital downloads most people still do not use internet platforms to purchase films. In 2009 the biggest source of revenue in the UK was the sale of DVD/Blu-ray (£1.3 billion), followed by cinema (£944 million), Pay-TV, free to air TV, video rental, and VOD/NVOD (£124 million).<br />To do well:<br />Develop a clear argument about the benefits and disadvantages to film institutions and audiences of recent developments effecting the film industry<br />Include detailed reference to case study material<br />Make sure you use relevant and accurate factual information<br />Use terminology consistently and accurately <br />Refer to your own experience as a consumer<br />Section B Exam QuestionsDiscuss the issues raised by an institution’s need to target specific audiences within a media industry which you have studied. Discuss the issues raised by an institution’s need to target specific audiences within a media industry which you have studied. How important is technological convergence for institutions and audiences within a media area which you have studied?How important is technological convergence for institutions and audiences within a media area which you have studied?How important is technological convergence for institutions and audiences within a media area which you have studied?<br />