Thermochemical Processing Of Biomass Brown

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Thermochemical Processing Of Biomass Brown

  1. 1. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Thermochemical Pathways to Renewable Fuels and More Robert C. Brown Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies Iowa State University 1
  2. 2. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Gasification Biorefinery • Fibrous or mixed feedstock heated in absence of oxygen to yield mixture of CO and H2 (syngas) and char byproduct • Gas clean-up followed by high pressure catalytic synthesis to products – Alcohols – Hydrocarbons CO2 Biomass Syngas Gasifier Gas Cleaning Catalytic Reactor Biobased Heat fuels and Air chemicals 2
  3. 3. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Gasification Biorefinery • Advantages (compared to biochemical platform) – Tolerates relatively dirty biomass feedstock – Produces uniform intermediate product (syngas) – Proven method for “cracking the lignocellulosic nut” – Allows energy integration in biorefinery • Disadvantages (compared to biochemical platform) – Gas cleaning technologies still under development – Synfuel processing occurs at high pressures Gasifier on the ISU Campus – Capital costs thought to be higher 3
  4. 4. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Thermochemical Synfuels Have Yield Advantage Source: Röj, A.*, Automotive Fuels from Biomass – What is the best road forward, First International Biorefinery Workshop, Washington, D.C., July 20-21, 2005, http://www.biorefineryworkshop.com/presentations/Roj.pdf * Volvo Technology Corporation, anders.roj@volvo.com 4
  5. 5. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Gasification Biorefinery Team R. C. Brown F. Battaglia R. Fox T. Heindel Mech. Eng. Mech. Eng. Chem. & Bio. Eng. Mech. Eng. Gasification CFD CFD Fluid Dynamics Photo G. Kraus V. Lin J. Satrio D. Vigil Chemistry Chemistry Chem. & Bio. Eng. Chem. & Bio. Eng. Catalysis Catalysis Reaction Eng. Reaction Eng. Photo Photo Biomass CO2 Syngas Gasifier Gas Cleaning Catalytic Reactor Biobased fuels Air Heat and chemicals 5
  6. 6. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery • Directly converts biomass into liquid bio-oil (lignin, carbohydrate derivatives, and water) and char • Bio-oil used as boiler fuel, synthetic diesel fuel, or a variety of biobased products • Char used for carbon sequestration and soil amendment Synthetic fuels Bio-oil vapor Cyclone Hydrocracker Steam Hydrogen Bio-Oil Char Reformer Recover Carbohydrate derived Pyrolyzer Phase aqueous phase Fibrous Separation biomass Boiler Fuel Lignin Biobased products: Asphalt binder Soil stabilization agent 6
  7. 7. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery • Advantages (compared to biochemical platform) – Opportunity for distributed preprocessing (densifies biomass) – Separates and uses both carbohydrate and lignin – Integrates into existing petroleum refineries • Disadvantages (compared to biochemical platform) – Bio-oil can be unstable, corrosive Pyrolyzer at BECON facility – Technology less developed 7
  8. 8. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Team R. C. Brown B. Shanks J. Satrio T. Meyer C. Williams H. Ceylan Mech. Eng. Chem. & Bio. Eng. Chem. & Bio. Eng. Mech. Eng. Civ. Con. Env. Eng. Civ. Con. Env. Eng. Pyrolysis Catalysis Reaction Eng. Combustion Lignin Utiliz. Lignin Utiliz. Photo Photo Bio-oil vapor Synthetic R. Killorn Cyclone fuels Agronomy Hydrocracker Agri-char Steam Hydrogen Bio-Oil Char Reformer Recover Carbohydrate derived Pyrolyzer Phase aqueous phase Fibrous Separation biomass Boiler Fuel Lignin Biobased products: Asphalt binder Soil stabilization agent 8
  9. 9. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Syngas Fermentation Biorefinery • Biomass gasified to CO, CO2 and H2 • Autotrophic organisms ferment CO or CO2 and H2 into metabolic products – Alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters CO2 Biomass Syngas Biobased fuels Gasifier Gas Cleaning and chemicals Bioreactor Air 9
  10. 10. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Syngas Fermentation Biorefinery • Advantages (compared to gasification biorefinery) – Biocatalysts tolerant to sulfur and chlorine contaminants – Flexibility in the pressures and CO/H2 ratios employed – High selectivity in products produced – Genetic engineering can expand portfolio of products • Disadvantages (compared to gasification biorefinery) – Low rates of gas-liquid exchange – Less developed technology 10
  11. 11. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Syngas Fermentation Biorefinery Team R. C. Brown B. Shanks T. Heindel Mech. Eng. Chem. & Bio. Eng. Mech. Eng. Gasification Mass Transfer Mass Transfer Photo A. Dispirito A. Pometto T. Bobik B. Nikolau Microbiology Food Science Biochemistry Biochemistry Fermentation Fermentation Genetic Trans. Genetic Trans. Biomass Syngas Biobased fuels Gasifier Gas Cleaning and chemicals Air Bioreactor 11
  12. 12. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Bio-Oil Fermentation Biorefinery Fiber Distillation Ethanol Pentose Hot water extraction Fermenter Water Fiber byproduct Cyclone Bio-oil vapor Bio-Oil Char Detoxification Recovery Fermenter Pyrolyzer Phase Separation Anhydrosugar & other carbohydrate Lignin 12
  13. 13. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Bio-Oil Fermentation Biorefinery • Advantages (compared to biochemical) – Opportunity for distributed preprocessing – Avoids enzymatic hydrolysis bottleneck • Advantages (compared to thermochemical) – Avoids high pressure operations – Opportunities for biotechnology advances (such as direct fermentation of anhydrosugar) • Disadvantages – Bio-oil is complex mixture of compounds – Technology not well developed 13
  14. 14. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Bio-Oil Fermentation Biorefinery Team R. C. Brown M. Rover A. Pometto J. Satrio Mech. Eng. Chemistry Food Science Chem. & Bio. Eng. Pyrolysis Analysis Fermentation Reaction Eng. Photo Fiber Distillation Pentose and alkali Hot water extraction Ethanol Bio-oil vapor Fermenter Fiber byproduct Cyclone Bio-Oil Detoxification Recovery Char Phase Pyrolyzer Separation Anhydrosugar & other carbohydrate Fermenter Water Lignin 14
  15. 15. ConocoPhillips Campus Visit Bioeconomy Initiative October 25, 2006 Summary • Several thermochemical options are under development: – Gasification to ethanol and F-T diesel – Fast pyrolysis to boiler fuel, green diesel, and biobased products and for carbon sequestration – Syngas fermentation to biofuels and biopolymers – Bio-oil fermentation to ethanol and biobased products 15

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