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HydroThermal Liquefaction
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
Date: 19 June, 2024 NIT
SRINAGAR
Zeeshan Nazir
Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude
Contents
• Introduction
• Stats
• Problem at hand
• Solutions
• Our goal
• Conclusion
2
“Oils”
• Propel vehicles
• Heat buildings
• Produce electricity
• Petrochemical industry;
• c
• Plastics, polyurethane, solvents etc
3
Reference: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Reference: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
‘G’ represents ‘Giga’ meaning ‘Billion’
4
Yearly oil consumption as share of Total Proven Reserves
2%
98%
Consumption 2.1 %
Reserves 97.9 %
Proven Reserves
Reference: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) 5
Problem 1
6
What does it mean?
• 1.65 Trillion barrels of proven oil reserves in the world (as of 2022).
• We consume 35 Billion oil barrels per year.
• 97,103,871 (97 M) barrels per day.
• 15438281777 (1.5 B) litres per day.
• We only have 47 years of oil left.
Reference: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Trillion = 1012
Billion = 109
Million = 106
7
Problem 2
8
Process
9
Millions of years
long process
Humin: Carbon-based
macromolecular
substances, that can be
found in soil
Humic and fulvic acids
have been found to
promote plant height and
root density.
Kerogen: hydrocarbons
that are insoluble in
normal solvents
Alternatives
• Natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas.
• Propane (liquefied petroleum gas).
• Electricity.
• Hydrogen.
• Ammonia.
• Blends of 85% or more of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline
or other fuels.
• Coal-derived, domestically produced liquid fuels.
• Fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials.
10
Reference: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Composition of fuels
• 84% carbon
• 14% hydrogen
• 1–3% sulfur
• Less than 1% nitrogen,
oxygen atoms, metals, and
salts
11
Reference: Fuels of the Diesel-Gasoline Engines and Their Properties, dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.89044
Some Important definitions
• Biomass: Biomass is renewable organic
material that comes from plants and animals.
• Lignocellulosic biomass: Contains
polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses)
and an aromatic polymer (lignin).
• Bio-crude: Dark, viscous, and high energy
liquid with an energy content equal to 70–95%
that of fossil fuel.
12
Reference: Huihui Chen, et.al: Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioenergy Production, 2021 by WILEY-VCH GmbH.
Examples and composition
13
Reference: Furkan H. Isikgor a and C. Remzi Becer, DOI: 10.1039/C5PY00263J (Review Article) Polym. Chem., 2015, 6, 4497-4559
Different methods to make Bio Crude
14
1. Pyrolysis
15
Pyrolysis
• Biomass is heated rapidly at (500°C–700°C) in an
oxygen-free environment.
• Combustion does not occur.
• Biomass thermally decomposes into combustible
gases and bio-char.
• Char is removed, the vapours are cooled and
condensed into a liquid “bio-crude” oil.
16
Reference: Chitra Devi Venkatachalam et al. Environmental Engineering Research 27(1) 200555
Bio-Char: Black residue, made of carbon and ashes, remaining
after the pyrolysis of biomass, and is a form of charcoal.
Image:
Disadvantages
17
Reference: Chiang et al., Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 50, 73, 2000
High operational cost
Moisture must be < 25 %
High Energy
requirements
Air puri
fi
cation
installation is
necessary in order to
further treat
fl
ue
gases
Gases, liquids and
ashes are released
that could potentially
harm the
environment.
2. Gasification
18
Gasification
• Converts the biomass into suitable
gaseous fuels or
fi
ne chemicals.
• Biomass is exposed to a higher
temperature range (>700°C).
• Some oxygen is present to produce
synthesis gas (or syngas).
• A mixture that consists mostly of carbon
monoxide and hydrogen.
19
Reference: Chitra Devi Venkatachalam et al. Environmental Engineering Research 27(1) 200555
Disadvantages
20
Reference: 5 Disadvantages of Gasification Explained By C. E. Mebunii October, 2022
Costs associated
with capital
equipment.
High investment cost
Membrane technologies
to better separate and
purify hydrogen from
the gas stream
produced.
High temperature
requirements
(>700°C)
Yield products that
can cause
environmental
degradation.
3. Hydrothermal Liquefaction
21
Hydrothermal Liquefaction
• No preliminary drying
• Temp: 200 to 350 °C
• Pressure: 50 to 100 Bar
• Residence time: 5 to 60 min
• Decomposes complex macro-molecules into lower-
molecular-weight products that then polymerise to
form bio-crude oil
• HTL bio-crude has higher energy density compared
to pyrolysis, gasification
• Can be upgraded into conventional hydrocarbon fuels
Reference: [1] Bayat Hengameh et al. H.T.L of Food Waste: Effect of Process Parameters on Yields, Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 5, 2021
Image: BE-Sustainable Magazine Issue 12 - April 2021
22
[2] Chitra Devi Venkatachalam et al. Environmental Engineering Research 27(1) 200555.
Advantages
• Low operating cost
• Applicable of vast array of bio-masses
• Safe
• Waste reduction
• Low capital investment required.
• Easier operability
23
Reference: S.N Sahu et.al, Advancements in hydrothermal liquefaction reactors: overview and prospects, doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-821264-6.00012-7
Carbon footprint
24
0
25
50
75
100
Fuel Type
Gasoline Current Ethanol
Natural Gas Bio Mass Ethanol
Sugarcane Ethanol Cellulosic Bio Mass
Reference: Michael Wang et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 024001
19%
28%
52%
78%
86%
Goal
25
Reference: National Biomass Atlas of India, Ministry of New and renewable Energy, India
3 million tonnes of Biomass
Thank you so much!
Special Thanks to Dr. Mohammad Aslam (Sir) and Dr. Hamida-Tun-Nisa Chisti (Ma’am)
Linkedin.com/ZeeshanNazir
Slideshare.net/ZeeshanNazir17

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Hydro-Thermal Liquefaction Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude oil

  • 1. HydroThermal Liquefaction DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY Date: 19 June, 2024 NIT SRINAGAR Zeeshan Nazir Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude
  • 2. Contents • Introduction • Stats • Problem at hand • Solutions • Our goal • Conclusion 2
  • 3. “Oils” • Propel vehicles • Heat buildings • Produce electricity • Petrochemical industry; • c • Plastics, polyurethane, solvents etc 3 Reference: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
  • 4. Reference: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) ‘G’ represents ‘Giga’ meaning ‘Billion’ 4
  • 5. Yearly oil consumption as share of Total Proven Reserves 2% 98% Consumption 2.1 % Reserves 97.9 % Proven Reserves Reference: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) 5
  • 7. What does it mean? • 1.65 Trillion barrels of proven oil reserves in the world (as of 2022). • We consume 35 Billion oil barrels per year. • 97,103,871 (97 M) barrels per day. • 15438281777 (1.5 B) litres per day. • We only have 47 years of oil left. Reference: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Trillion = 1012 Billion = 109 Million = 106 7
  • 9. Process 9 Millions of years long process Humin: Carbon-based macromolecular substances, that can be found in soil Humic and fulvic acids have been found to promote plant height and root density. Kerogen: hydrocarbons that are insoluble in normal solvents
  • 10. Alternatives • Natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas. • Propane (liquefied petroleum gas). • Electricity. • Hydrogen. • Ammonia. • Blends of 85% or more of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels. • Coal-derived, domestically produced liquid fuels. • Fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials. 10 Reference: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
  • 11. Composition of fuels • 84% carbon • 14% hydrogen • 1–3% sulfur • Less than 1% nitrogen, oxygen atoms, metals, and salts 11 Reference: Fuels of the Diesel-Gasoline Engines and Their Properties, dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.89044
  • 12. Some Important definitions • Biomass: Biomass is renewable organic material that comes from plants and animals. • Lignocellulosic biomass: Contains polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and an aromatic polymer (lignin). • Bio-crude: Dark, viscous, and high energy liquid with an energy content equal to 70–95% that of fossil fuel. 12 Reference: Huihui Chen, et.al: Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioenergy Production, 2021 by WILEY-VCH GmbH.
  • 13. Examples and composition 13 Reference: Furkan H. Isikgor a and C. Remzi Becer, DOI: 10.1039/C5PY00263J (Review Article) Polym. Chem., 2015, 6, 4497-4559
  • 14. Different methods to make Bio Crude 14
  • 16. Pyrolysis • Biomass is heated rapidly at (500°C–700°C) in an oxygen-free environment. • Combustion does not occur. • Biomass thermally decomposes into combustible gases and bio-char. • Char is removed, the vapours are cooled and condensed into a liquid “bio-crude” oil. 16 Reference: Chitra Devi Venkatachalam et al. Environmental Engineering Research 27(1) 200555 Bio-Char: Black residue, made of carbon and ashes, remaining after the pyrolysis of biomass, and is a form of charcoal. Image:
  • 17. Disadvantages 17 Reference: Chiang et al., Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 50, 73, 2000 High operational cost Moisture must be < 25 % High Energy requirements Air puri fi cation installation is necessary in order to further treat fl ue gases Gases, liquids and ashes are released that could potentially harm the environment.
  • 19. Gasification • Converts the biomass into suitable gaseous fuels or fi ne chemicals. • Biomass is exposed to a higher temperature range (>700°C). • Some oxygen is present to produce synthesis gas (or syngas). • A mixture that consists mostly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. 19 Reference: Chitra Devi Venkatachalam et al. Environmental Engineering Research 27(1) 200555
  • 20. Disadvantages 20 Reference: 5 Disadvantages of Gasification Explained By C. E. Mebunii October, 2022 Costs associated with capital equipment. High investment cost Membrane technologies to better separate and purify hydrogen from the gas stream produced. High temperature requirements (>700°C) Yield products that can cause environmental degradation.
  • 22. Hydrothermal Liquefaction • No preliminary drying • Temp: 200 to 350 °C • Pressure: 50 to 100 Bar • Residence time: 5 to 60 min • Decomposes complex macro-molecules into lower- molecular-weight products that then polymerise to form bio-crude oil • HTL bio-crude has higher energy density compared to pyrolysis, gasification • Can be upgraded into conventional hydrocarbon fuels Reference: [1] Bayat Hengameh et al. H.T.L of Food Waste: Effect of Process Parameters on Yields, Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 5, 2021 Image: BE-Sustainable Magazine Issue 12 - April 2021 22 [2] Chitra Devi Venkatachalam et al. Environmental Engineering Research 27(1) 200555.
  • 23. Advantages • Low operating cost • Applicable of vast array of bio-masses • Safe • Waste reduction • Low capital investment required. • Easier operability 23 Reference: S.N Sahu et.al, Advancements in hydrothermal liquefaction reactors: overview and prospects, doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-821264-6.00012-7
  • 24. Carbon footprint 24 0 25 50 75 100 Fuel Type Gasoline Current Ethanol Natural Gas Bio Mass Ethanol Sugarcane Ethanol Cellulosic Bio Mass Reference: Michael Wang et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 024001 19% 28% 52% 78% 86%
  • 25. Goal 25 Reference: National Biomass Atlas of India, Ministry of New and renewable Energy, India 3 million tonnes of Biomass
  • 26. Thank you so much!
  • 27. Special Thanks to Dr. Mohammad Aslam (Sir) and Dr. Hamida-Tun-Nisa Chisti (Ma’am) Linkedin.com/ZeeshanNazir Slideshare.net/ZeeshanNazir17